Aim: What factors/circumstances aided in the unification of Italy? Title: The Unification of Italy Do Now: • Please take out last night’s homework, just need to check it. • Please place yesterday’s handout in front [part of last night’s homework]. 24:3
Aim: What factors/circumstances aided in the unification of Italy? Title: The Unification of Italy Do Now [quietly please!]: 1. In your own words, define the term, nationalism. a. Be sure to examine some of the key elements connected to the term. 2. What are your views pertaining to nationalism? Would you classify it as a positive or negative force/movement? Prudence is absolutely necessary here: Think carefully prior to answering.
Answer to # 1Nationalism • Nationalism is defined as pride in one’s country • Strong feelings for one’s country. • People who share a common language, history heritage. • Nationalism causes people to join together
Answer to # 1Nationalism • 6 bonds that unify [shake my hands – don’t worry, I used soap & water & afterwards, hand-sanitizer] a people: • common religion • common language • common ethnicity or ancestry • common history • common land • common culture
Answer to # 1 Nation-State 24:3
Good Can work to bring people together. Give people a common goal. Pride or loyalty to one’s country. Bad Can pull countries apart. Can cause revolts and wars within the country. Extreme nationalism can cause world wars because one country feels it is better then another. Answer to # 2Nationalism
Answer to # 2The Ideal of Nationalism • Nationality as a common ancestry • Loyalty to a people • Nations with a right to independence 24:3
Answer to #2Nationalism • Nationalism can be like a bomb and split nations apart • Russia • Ottoman Empire • Austro-Hungarian • These nations/empires controlled vast numbers of different ethnic groups who wanted self government.
Answer to # 2Nationalism • Nationalism can be like a magnet and bring people together to create nation-states. • Places like Italy and Germany
OBJECTIVE I: Italy and Nationalism - Why wasn’t Italy united before the second half of the 1800s? * No writing is necessary here,just need a few volunteers to briefly list a few answers to the question above.
Italy and Nationalism:Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850s? • After the fall of the Roman Empire, Italy had been a nation of small states. • Napoleon united “Italy” into the Kingdom of Italy. • The Congress of Vienna [worked towards undoing ALL of the grand changes made by Napoleon & Enlightenment philosophy… wanted to resurrect absolute rule/monarchy] re-divided Italy and placed Italy under the rule of Austria. • Italy continued to remain a country of small feudal states
xcdcxwaswaswwwwwwwwas Conclusion? Throughout the ages, “Italy” was split up into several different “states” and was independently governed by local/natives of the region or by foreigners – e.g., France, Austria-Hungary, etc. (1859-1860)
OBJECTIVE #II - Work on completing the handout: Exploring the road to Italy’s Unification 24:3
Giuseppe Mazzini a. Giuseppe Mazzini • Nationalist leader who founded Young Italy. • Young Italy was a secret society hoped to form a free republic of Italy and established a republic in Rome. • Was quickly defeated by the French in 1849.
The Soul: Mazzini (1805-1872) The Duties of Man: “O my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, the house that God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love…” The Idealist Patriot
Italian Unification • In 1849 the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II and Count Camillo Cavour began to work for Italian unification • Where is Sardinia again? Is it even part of “Italy”? Can’t find it on a map of the mainland.
Cavour Unites Italy Pope Pius IX: The “Spoiler”? • The quest for unity • Mazzini’s Young Italy • Sardinia and Italian unification • Cavour’s goals • Unification in the south • Garibaldi’s Red Shirts • Challenges after unification • Regional conflicts Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”] 24:3 Count Cavour[The “Head”] Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”] King Victor Emmanuel II
The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Unification of Northern Italy • 1858-1859: Central Italy to the rescue – demand unification! • 1860: • Cavour returns & France re-pledges support • N. Italy unified (w/o Venetia)
The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Unification of Northern Italy • 1850s: strengthen Sardinia • 1858-1859: Quest to get Lombardy-Venetia from Austria! • ally w/ France • goad Austria into war • Franco-Sardinian victory! • France pulls support … separate peace w/ Austria: Italy gets Lombardy only • Cavour resigns Noble Statesman in Sardinian Government, 1850-1861
Unification of North & South Red Shirts 1860: conquered Sicily plan to invade Papal States stopped by Cavour Cavour orders plebiscite S. states vote to join N The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882) Military Leader
Why would I surrender the land I unified to Victor Emmanuel and not keep fighting north on my own? The Two Giuseppe’s b. Giuseppe Garibaldi: • Lead a revolutionary group of soldiers known as the “red shirts” • The “red shirts” invaded Sicily in 1860 and then started marching back North winning and controlling the areas as they marched. • They eventually would connect with Victor Emmanuel at Naples where Garibaldi would turn over the lands he controlled to Emmanuel helping him become King in 1861.
Italian Unification • In the south Garibaldi started a revolutionary movement to drive the Spanish out of Italy • Garibaldi’s followers known as Red Shirts began attacking the Spanish in Sicily • In 1860 the Red Shirts and Garibaldi had driven the Spanish out of Italy • Finally in 1870 the French withdrew from Italy leaving it a newly unified country
Italian Unification • By 1861 most of Italy was unified • Victory Emmanuel II became king of the newly unified Italy
King Victor Emmanuel II Garibaldi “Right Leg in the Boot at Last” What symbol is used to represent the soon-to-be nation of Italy? This cartoon was published in Great Britain. What does the title say about the British attitude towards the unification of Italy? How is Garibaldi portrayed?
Divisions between: What did the new, unified Italy look like? Government: Parliamentary monarchy (Victor Emmanuel) Limited suffrage [Right to vote] Social classes (rich/poor) Regions (N/S)
Challenges for Italia a. Strong regional rivalries still existed. b. Major division between Northern & Southern Italy • Northern Italy was industrializing and had the largest cities and wealthiest citizens. • Southern Italy was rural and poor. Life in the North? Life in the South?
Challenges for Italia c. Problems with the R.C.C.: • The Pope resented the Papal states being taken over and refused to recognize the new Nation and urged Catholics not to cooperate with the government. • A small section of Rome, Vatican City [a country within a state, that’s within a country], remained under R.C.C. control.