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Different types of environment PowerPoint Presentation
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Different types of environment

Different types of environment

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Different types of environment

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  1. Different types of environment There are three major types of environment. What are they? land freshwater marine How do organisms survive in such different environments?

  2. What is adaptation? All organisms are adapted to life in general, such as having legs for walking, wings for flying or leaves for photosynthesizing. These are general adaptations. Organisms also have specific adaptations. These arespecial features or behaviours that have evolved to make an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.

  3. A shark’s general adaptations What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water fins provide stability, power and control

  4. A shark’s specific adaptations What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage

  5. The importance of adaptation Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their environment? The better adapted an organism is to its habitat, the more successful it will be when competing for resources such as food and mates. This increases the organism’s chance of survival and so increases its chance of reproducing and passing on its genes.

  6. True or false?

  7. Animals that eat other animals A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animalsfor food. Predators can be either: • carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves • omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans. A prey animalis one that is attacked and eaten by a predator.

  8. How are predators and prey adapted? Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey. Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators.

  9. Adaptations of predators What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing? • Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey. • High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected. • Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.

  10. Adaptations of prey What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators? • Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions. • High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators. • Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves. • Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.

  11. Adaptations of the snowshoe hare The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? large ears help in detecting predators greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold

  12. Adaptations of the lynx How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? excellent binocular vision for judging distances warm thick furry coat protects from the cold sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh verystrong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres! extra large paws act as snow shoes

  13. Using poison Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey. Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey. Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die. They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.

  14. Let’s pretend Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry. For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees. This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverflyis incapable of stinging.

  15. Whose adaptation?

  16. How is a polar bear adapted? How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate? white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes

  17. More polar bears adaptations Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment include: small ears and smallbody surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection black skinis a good absorber of heat

  18. Curious camel facts Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know that: • camels have three stomachs • some camels live to over 40 years old • some Bactrian camels can transport 450kg • archaeological finds show that camels originated in North America • Somalia is home to over six million camels!

  19. How is a camel adapted? fat is stored in the humptoreduce overheating little water is lost through sweatingorurination long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?

  20. More camel adaptations What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment? long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms very varied diet, ranging from grassand bark tothorns and bones.

  21. Which adaptation?

  22. How is a cactus adapted? How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water

  23. What do flowers do? Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination. In what ways can pollination take place? • Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another. • Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.

  24. Adaptations for insect pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies? colourful, scented petals attract insects nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them

  25. Adaptations for wind pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind? huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains small, dull-coloured petals anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped

  26. Unusual plant adaptations Plants can livein acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!

  27. Glossary (1/2) • adaptation –A special feature or behaviour that makes an organism particularly suited to its habitat. • camouflage – An adaptation that helps an organism to remain undetected by a predator or prey. • general – A type of adaptation that makes an organism suited to life overall. • mimicry – The resemblance of one species to a more dangerous species, for protection against predation.

  28. Glossary (2/2) • pollination – The transfer of pollen from one flower to another, and which is assisted by insects or wind. • predator –An organism that hunts and kills other organismsfor food. • prey –An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism. • specific – A type of adaptation that makes an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.

  29. Anagrams

  30. Which organism?

  31. Multiple-choice quiz