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IMPLEMENTATION of The BOLOGNA PROCESS in TURKEY Baku Seminar Council of Europe May 26-27, 2008 Aybar Ertepinar

IMPLEMENTATION of The BOLOGNA PROCESS in TURKEY Baku Seminar Council of Europe May 26-27, 2008 Aybar Ertepinar. The Council of Higher Education (CoHE) of Turkey. Non-political constitutional body Autonomous supreme corporate public body with juristic personality

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IMPLEMENTATION of The BOLOGNA PROCESS in TURKEY Baku Seminar Council of Europe May 26-27, 2008 Aybar Ertepinar

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  1. IMPLEMENTATION of The BOLOGNA PROCESS in TURKEY Baku Seminar Council of Europe May 26-27, 2008 Aybar Ertepinar Aybar Ertepınar

  2. The Council of Higher Education (CoHE) of Turkey • Non-political constitutional body • Autonomous supreme corporate public body with juristic personality • Governs all higher education • Directs the activities of the institutions of higher education. • Responsible for the planning, coordination, governance and supervision of higher education within the provisions set forth in the Constitution (Articles 130 and 131) and the Higher Education Law (Law No. 2547). Aybar Ertepınar

  3. Main Functions and Duties of the CoHE • to prepare short and long-term plans for the establishment, development, and realization of educational activities of the higher educational institutions, • to promote continual cooperation and coordination among the institutions of higher education, • to ensure the establishment and development of the higher education institutions in conformity with the objectives and principles set forth by law, • to ensure the effective use of the resources allotted to the universities Aybar Ertepınar

  4. Structure of theHigher Education (HE)System • HE system is defined as all post-secondary programmes with a duration of at least two years. • Unitary system consisting of universities • State Universities • Foundation Universities (non-profit, private) Aybar Ertepınar

  5. Total Number of Students in HE about 2,500,000 Aybar Ertepınar

  6. Total number of academic staff in HE 90,000 (numbers are rounded) Prof.13,000 Assoc. Prof6,500 Asst. Prof.16,000 Instructor15,000 Language Instructor6,500 Research Assistants33,000 Aybar Ertepınar

  7. The Bologna Process &Turkey • Turkey joined B.P. at Prag ministerial meeting in 2001 Aybar Ertepınar

  8. The six objectives of the Bologna Process (before Prag) • Adoption of a system essentially based on two main cycles • Establishment of a system of credits • Promotion of mobility • Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance • Promotion of the European dimensions in higher education • Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees Aybar Ertepınar

  9. 3 new action lines added at Prag • Life longlearning(LLL) • (Active participation of the) Higher education institutions and students • Promoting the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area(EHEA) Aybar Ertepınar

  10. ... and the last action line added in Berlin (2003) European Higher Education Area and European Research Area (the two pillars of the knowledge based society) and, hence, the new cycle: • The third cycle (Ph.D.) Aybar Ertepınar

  11. The degree structure at HE level in Turkey • Short cycle (two-year, post secondary) and already in accordance with the B.P. before joining the B.P., • First cycle (Bachelor’s) • Second cycle (Master’s) • Third cycle (Ph.D.) Aybar Ertepınar

  12. Earlier experience similar toECTS and DS The experience of METU from 1956 to 1987 about the course credit system (taking into account all the student load) for the course, and transcripts giving those details (GPA, CGPA), and other HEIs following it in 1970’s and 1980’s (but with a new credit system, not comparable with ECS) Aybar Ertepınar

  13. Developments onDiploma Supplement (DS) • A national DS template • in line with the model suggested by the relevant bodies • DS in Turkey • mandatory at all HEIs since the end of 2005-2006 academic year • includes ECTS credits, • issued to students in 2 languages: one in Turkish and one in English/German/French, upon request, first copy being free of charge Aybar Ertepınar

  14. Student Mobility • about 4,500 students participated in the Erasmus programme in 2006-2007 • demand was much higher • National Agency of Turkey is expecting a significant increase in their budget • outgoing more than incoming Aybar Ertepınar

  15. Units/Committees established for the implementation of the B.P.as of December 2007 • a permanent unit (EU & Int’l Relations Office, EUIRO) has been established within CoHE • Bologna Process Policy committees for action lines/group of action lines: • Strategy Development Committee (national level-by CoHE) Aybar Ertepınar

  16. cont’d • YÖDEK-national level (initiated by the CoHE and IUC) • Committee for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement at HEIs, an independent national QA authority responsible for accreditation of national external QA agencies Aybar Ertepınar

  17. cont’d • ADEK- institutional level (institutional committee for academic assessment and quality improvement) • Committee for NQF for HE (national level, by CoHE) • Committee for EUROSTUDENT Project (national level, by CoHE) • National Team of Bologna Experts including one student (for promoting action lines, EC funded, funding distributed by the TR National Agency for LLP, SPO) Aybar Ertepınar

  18. Developments on Quality Assurance • National Regulation for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement at HEIs • In line with the standards and guidelines of ENQA • Embodies 5 key elements of assessment system listed in Berlin Communiqué: • internal assessment, • external review, • participation of student, • publication of results, • international participation. Aybar Ertepınar

  19. cont’d • “Committee for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement at HEIs” (YÖDEK) • independent • not a legal entity yet- work on the way. Note: not a member of EQAR yet!... Aybar Ertepınar

  20. cont’d • 9 members elected by the Interuniversity Board (IUC) and one student member appointed by the national student union • 40 HEIs out of then 78 (total number of HEIs at that date)have already completed their self-assessment reports and first internal assessment of all universities as well as the external assessment of some have bern completed, but not published. • All the strategic development plans, including CoHE, have been evaluated by an external expert. Aybar Ertepınar

  21. Student Participation NQA • one student appointed by the NSC as a full member of the national QA agency, YÖDEK • universitiesrequired to include one representative from their student union in their “Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement Board (ADEK)” as a full member • students participate and enjoy the same privileges in internal/external evaluation teams as the other team members Aybar Ertepınar

  22. International Participation in QAas of Fall 2007 • ABET (USA) 42 engineering programmes of 4 universities • EUA • Institutional Evaluation Programme: 12 universities were evaluated and 5 universities applied • Quality Culture Project 3 universities in 1st phase 1 university in 2nd phase 2 universities in 3rd phase Aybar Ertepınar

  23. Student Participation in Bologna Process • “Regulation on Student Councils of Higher Education Institutions and the National Student Council of Higher Education Institutions in Turkey” • enacted by CoHE on September 20, 2005 • a national-level student council has been established the same year • complete bottom-up organizational process and distribution of power in the most democratic manner starting from the departments/programme/major level at the bottom to the higher education institution and the national level at the top. Aybar Ertepınar

  24. cont’d • President of university student union can attend: • the Senate and the Executive Board meetings of the university if student-related issues are in the agenda of the meetings • the General Board of CoHE and the Interuniversity Board meetings upon the invitation of the President of CoHE if student related issues are to be discussed in the meeting • change in the HE Law is required to give voting rights to the students in these boards Aybar Ertepınar

  25. Developments on National Qualifications Framework for HE • The Core Committee for the NQF for HE established (by CoHE on May 26, 2006) • level descriptors prepared, • feedbacks from universities received (end of summer 2007) • ready for implementation by the IUC and CoHE • Conference in Fall 2007 (Muğla University) • with the support of the Council of Europe, • with the participation of experts from the CoE Aybar Ertepınar

  26. Cont’d Implementation • the Engineering and Education Faculties and programmes in these faculties started their NQF implementation work, in Fall 2007 Aybar Ertepınar

  27. Cont’d • validation of non-formal or informal competences for access purposes will be out of scope of the Turkish NQF for HE due to the lack of a favorable legal framework for the time being. Aybar Ertepınar

  28. Developments onJoint Degrees • No legal obstacles existed • Universities can set up and carry out joint degree programmes through bilateral protocols • Encouragement needed Aybar Ertepınar

  29. Cont’d • December 28, 2006 - Regulation on international joint/dual degree programmes in higher education. • Encourages the establishment and provision of international joint programmes in Turkey in two ways: • Providing extra income for faculty and staff • Attracting students to the first cycle joint/dual programmes Aybar Ertepınar

  30. Developments onRecognition of Degrees and StudyPeriods Lisbon Recognition Convention (LRC): • Ratification process of LRC has been completed • approved by the Law No. 5463 of February 23, 2006, and ratified by the Cabinet Decision No. 2006/11158. • came into force on March 1, 2007 • Adoption of the five basic principles of LRC by the Decision of CoHE dated April 13, 2006 • Reservationon Article IV.8 of the Convention regarding the access condition of non-traditional qualifications Aybar Ertepınar

  31. New Developments onRecognition of Degrees and Study (Cont’d) • necessary amendments in line with the LRC and its supplementary texts in the “Regulation on Recognition of Foreign Higher Education Qualifications” • new regulation was adopted on May 2007 and published in the Official Journal. Aybar Ertepınar

  32. LIFE-LONG LEARNING(LLL) • -some universities started granting professional experience a limited number of course- credit in some of their second cyle programmes • -almost all the HEIs have “continuous education centres” contributing to LLL ( offer seminars, conferences and refresher courses to professionals and public at large) • “Second University” project carried out by Anadolu University(since 2001) The project enables the Associate and the Bachelor degree holders and undergraduate students to be admitted to the distance-learning programmes of AnadoluUniversity without any entrance exam.. The Bachelor degree holders can apply to both two- or four-year distance-learning programmes, while the Associate degreeholders can be admitted only to the two-year distance-learning programmes. (current enrollment: 40,000) Aybar Ertepınar

  33. Cont’d LLL But • the validation of non-formal or informal competences is not applicable in Turkey for acces to any cycle due to the lack of a favourable legal framework. • It is not likely that this concept will appear in the strategic agenda of HE in a foreseeable future. Aybar Ertepınar

  34. Third Cycle(Ph.D.) BERGEN Communiqué, Article 3, para. 1 (2005) • “To achieve these objectives, doctoral level qualifications need to be fully aligned with the EHEA overarching framework for qualifications using the outcomes-based approach. The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research. Considering the need for structured doctoral programmes and the need for transparent supervision and assessment, we note that the normal workload of the third cycle in most countries would correspond to 3-4 years full time. We urge universities to ensure that their doctoral programmes promote interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills, thus meeting the needs of the wider employment market. Aybar Ertepınar

  35. cont’d BERGEN Communiqué, Article 3, para. 1 (2005) We need to achieve an overall increase in the numbers of doctoral candidates taking up research careerswithin the EHEA. We consider participants in third cycle programmes both as students and as early stage researchers. We charge the Bologna Follow-up Group with inviting the European University Association, together with other interested partners, to prepare a report under the responsibility of the Follow-up Group on the further development of the basic principles for doctoral programmes, to be presented to Ministers in 2007. Overregulation of doctoral programmes must be avoided.” Aybar Ertepınar

  36. Third Cycle in Turkey • all structured, all offered by universities • Normally 8 semesters, • minimum of 7 courses(over 2nd cyle) and • dissertation based on original research • most students employed by the universityduring their work, some on scholarships • NQF level descriptors(of the core committee) fully aligned with the EQF using the outcomes-based approach. Aybar Ertepınar

  37. BOLOGNA SCORECARD 2007- TURKEY Aybar Ertepınar

  38. STILL AHEAD for the entire Bologna Family • The process is dynamic and is subject to new developments at all times (whatever the EHEA and ERA needs to make its member States the most competetive knowlege-based society and knowledge-based economy). ... new action lines ??? ... new indicators within the existing action lines ??? ... Bologna beyond 2010 ???????... ?.. for Turkey, before 2010 • NQA to become a legal entity • Become a member of EQAR • Sources of funding for external review for QA • NQF in line with EQF to be fully implemented • LLL Aybar Ertepınar

  39. Thank you foryour patience ! Aybar Ertepınar

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