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26 May 2008 Baku

26 May 2008 Baku

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26 May 2008 Baku

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  1. Qualifications FrameworksCurrent issues in the Bologna ProcessDr. Carita BlomqvistNational Board of Education, Finland 26 May 2008 Baku

  2. Outline • Background (Bologna Process) • Higher Education Qualifications Framework • Higher Education Qualifications Framework in Finland • Overarching framework for qualifications of the European Higher Education Area • Compatibility between national framework and overarching framework

  3. Berlin Communiqué 2003 ”Ministers encourage member states to elaborate a framework of comparable and compatible qualifications for their higher education systems, which should seek to describe qualifications in terms of workload, level, learning outcomes, competences and profile.”

  4. Berlin Communiqué 2003 ”Within suchframeworks, degrees should have different defined orientation and various profiles in order to accommodate a diversity of individual, academic and labor market needs. First cycle degrees should give access, in the sense of Lisbon Recognition Convention, to second cycle programs. Second cycle degrees should give access to doctoral studies.”

  5. National qualifications framework • Owned by national system, in many cases based on national legislation • Determines what qualifications learners will earn • Makes explicit the purpose and aim of qualifications • Link to quality assurance

  6. National qualifications framework • Transparency: describes in a systematic and coherent way all qualifications, the interaction between qualifications and the possibilities for movement between qualifications in all directions • Makes it easier to earn qualifications in a variety of ways • Focus on outcomes; from procedure to content

  7. National qualifications frameworkMain elements • Cycles/Levels • Workload: time, credits – all relevant work? • Profile -academic/professional -institutional or program profile • Learning outcomes

  8. Learning outcomes: a definition • A learning outcome is a written statement of what the successful learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the module/course unit or qualification. The key aspect… is the desire for more precision and consideration as to what exactly a learner acquires in terms of knowledge and/or skills when they successfully complete a period of learning. (Stephen Adam, after having reviewed a number of different definitions)

  9. Learning outcomes • What a learner -knows -understands -is able to do How to express and compare? Subject-specific and generic Relation learning outcomes – other elements of the concept of qualifications

  10. Higher Education Qualifications Framework in Finland • National working group appointed by the Ministry of Education in May 2004 • Proposal ready in February 2005 • Chaired by the Ministry of Education • Two secretaries

  11. Higher Education Qualifications Framework in Finland • Permanent participants: Ministry of Education, universities, polytechnics, (academics and administration), student organizations, quality assurance, ISCED, National Board of Education (ENIC) • Other: social partners, higher education institutions which are not supervised by the Ministry of Education (Police Polytechnic, National Defence College)

  12. Previous, parallel and future processes • Preparations for new degree structure had started fall 2003 • 2003-2007 funding from the Ministry of Education to higher education institutions for planning and implementing the reform - field-specific coordination groups, chaired by academics: analysis of the study programs and learning outcomes provided by them - planning and revising/renewal of core contents

  13. Previous, parallel and future processes - special group for language teaching - defining requirements, aims and learning outcomes - transfer to ECTS-equivalent credit system 2005-2007: - guidance and counselling of students (personal study plans) - development projects 2009: evaluation of the degree reform

  14. Proposal for the Finnish Framework • Ownership • Public understanding • Writing process/background material used: - Legislation, what does it say? Aims of the degrees - Studying the course descriptions, curricula etc. - Discussions with experts

  15. Proposal for the Finnish Framework Finnish context: - legislation - steering/governance and development of higher education system - quality assurance - diagram, charts

  16. Universities Academically - oriented degrees Polytechnics Professionally - oriented degrees Doctorate c. 4 years Third cycle Master's 90 - 120 credits Master's 60 - 90 credits Second cycle Work experience Bachelor's 180 - 210 credits Bachelor's 210 - 240 credits First cycle Upper secondary education at least 12 years of schooling

  17. Formal aspects of the degrees For first cycle (polytechnic, university), second cycle (polytechnic, university) and doctoral - access requirement (s) - workload (credits and years), final thesis/work - access to further study - professional status/competence - profile

  18. Learning outcomes For first cycle (polytechnic, university), second cycle (polytechnic, university) and doctoral degrees Main division: -knowledge -skills -competences

  19. Learning outcomes Knowledge - breadth and depth Skills - language and communication skills Competences - cognitive, professional and ethical

  20. Proposal for the Finnish Framework Consultations • Written statements from stakeholders requested • 60 statements received, summarized in one document • Seminars on different cycles and aspects, e.g. on doctoral degrees, labor-market relevance of first (and second) cycle qualifications

  21. How to use the Framework? - Further field-specific work - Joint programs and joint degrees - Diploma Supplement - Lifelong Learning, Accreditation of Prior Learning • Amendments and decision of the Ministry of Education in 2008? • Maintenance and development

  22. Bergen Communiqué 2005 “We adopt the overarching framework for qualifications in the EHEA, comprising three cycles, generic descriptors for each cycle based on learning outcomes and competences, and credit ranges in the first and second cycles. We commit ourselves to elaborating national frameworks for qualifications compatible with the overarching framework for qualifications in the EHEA by 2010 and having started work on this by 2007.”

  23. Overarching EHEA framework • An overarching framework makes transparent the relationship between national higher education frameworks of qualifications and the qualifications they contain. • An articulation mechanism between national frameworks • Facilitates movement between systems • Provides a common framework for the diversity and helps to understand diversity

  24. Overarching EHEA framework • Three cycles of qualifications (sometimes additional cycle within the 1st cycle) • Descriptors of qualifications and learning outcomes: generic, not subject-specific • Credit ranges in ECTS: 1st cycle: 180-240; 2nd cycle: 90-120 (minimum 60 credits at 2nd cycle level)

  25. EHEA FIRST CYCLE QUALIFICATIONQualifications that signify completion of the first cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated knowledge and understanding in a field of study that builds upon their general secondary education, and is typically at a level that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes some aspects that will be informed by knowledge of the forefront of their field of study; • can apply their knowledge and understanding in a manner that indicates a professional approach to their work or vocation, and have competences typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems within their field of study;

  26. EHEA FIRST CYCLE QUALIFICATION • have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) to inform judgments that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues; • can communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences; • have developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy

  27. EHEA SECOND CYCLE QUALIFICATIONQualifications that signify completion of the second cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that typically associated with the first cycle, and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research context; • can apply their knowledge and understanding, and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to their field of study;

  28. EHEA SECOND CYCLE QUALIFICATION • have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information, but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements; • can communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously; • have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.

  29. EHEA THIRD CYCLE QUALIFICATIONQualifications that signify completion of the third cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field; • have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity; • have made a contribution through original research that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work, some of which merits national or international refereed publication;

  30. EHEA THIRD CYCLE QUALIFICATION • are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas; • can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general about their areas of expertise; • can be expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society.

  31. EHEA – national frameworkFurther issues • Self-certification: Process by which the competent authorities of the country concerned verify that the national qualifications framework is compatible with the overarching EHEA framework • Criteria for “verification of compatibility” have been established • Recognition: what is a “substantial difference”? (Lisbon Recognition Convention)

  32. More information Bologna web page on qualifications frameworks: • e.g. 10 steps in developing a national qualifications framework • •