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General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 7e

General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 7e

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General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 7e

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  1. General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 7e Bettelheim, Brown, and March

  2. Chapter 16 Amines

  3. Structure & Classification • Amines are classified as 1°, 2°, or 3° depending on the number of carbon groups bonded to nitrogen • aliphatic amine: all carbons bonded to nitrogen are derived from alkyl groups • aromatic amine: one or more of the groups bonded to nitrogen are aryl groups

  4. Structure & Classification • heterocyclic amine: an amine in which the nitrogen atom is part of a ring • heterocyclic aliphatic amine: a heterocyclic amine in which the ring is saturated (has no C=C bonds) • heterocyclic aromatic amine: the amine nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring

  5. Nomenclature • IUPAC names • we derive IUPAC names for aliphatic amines just as we did for alcohols • drop the final -e of the parent alkane and replace it by -amine • use a number to locate the amino group on the parent chain

  6. Nomenclature • IUPAC names (cont’d) • IUPAC nomenclature retains the common name aniline for C6H5NH2, the simplest aromatic amine • name simple derivatives of aniline by using numbers to locate substituents or, alternatively, use the prefixes ortho (o), meta (m), and para (p) • several derivatives of aniline have common names that are still widely used; among them is toluidine

  7. Nomenclature • IUPAC names (cont’d) • name unsymmetrical secondary and tertiary amines as N-substituted primary amines • take the largest group bonded to nitrogen as the parent amine • name the smaller group(s) bonded to nitrogen, and show their location on nitrogen by using the prefix N (indicating that they are bonded to nitrogen)

  8. Nomenclature • Common names • for most aliphatic amines, list the groups bonded to nitrogen in alphabetical order in one word ending in the suffix -amine

  9. Nomenclature • Amine salts • when four atoms or groups of atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom, as for example CH3NH3+, nitrogen bears a positive charge and is associated with an anion as a salt • name the compound as a salt of the corresponding amine • replace the ending -amine (or aniline or pyridine or the like) by -ammonium (or anilinium or pyridinium or the like) and add the name of the anion

  10. Physical Properties • Like ammonia, low-molecular-weight amines have very sharp, penetrating odors • trimethylamine, for example, is the pungent principle in the smell of rotting fish • two other particularly pungent amines are 1,4-butanediamine (putrescine) and 1,5-pentanediamine (cadaverine)

  11. Physical Properties • Amines are polar compounds • both 1° and 2° amines have N-H bonds, and can form hydrogen bonds with one another • 3° amines have no N-H bond and cannot form hydrogen bonds with one another

  12. Physical Properties • an N-H---N hydrogen bond is weaker than an O-H---O hydrogen bond because the difference in electronegativity between N and H (3.0 - 2.1 = 0.9) is less than that between O and H (3.5 - 2.1 = 1.4) • we see the effect of hydrogen bonding between molecules of comparable molecular weight by comparing the boiling points of ethane, methanamine, and methanol

  13. Physical Properties • all classes of amines form hydrogen bonds with water and are more soluble in water than are hydrocarbons of comparable molecular weight • most low-molecular-weight amines are completely soluble in water • higher-molecular-weight amines are only moderately soluble in water or are insoluble

  14. Basicity of Amines • Like ammonia, amines are weak bases, and aqueous solutions of amines are basic • the acid-base reaction between an amine and water involves transfer of a proton from water to the amine

  15. Basicity of Amines • The base dissociation constant, Kb, for the reaction of an amine with water has the following form, illustrated for the reaction of methylamine with water to give methylammonium hydroxide • pKb is defined as the negative logarithm of Kb

  16. Basicity of Amines • aliphatic amines have about the same base strength, and are slightly stronger bases than NH3 • aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic amines are considerably weaker bases than aliphatic amines • note that while aliphatic amines are weak bases by comparison with inorganic bases such as NaOH, they are strong bases among organic compounds

  17. Basicity of Amines • Given the basicities of amines, we can determine which form of an amine exists in body fluids, say blood • in a normal, healthy person, the pH of blood is approximately 7.40, which is slightly basic • if an aliphatic amine is dissolved in blood, it is present predominantly as its protonated (conjugated acid) form

  18. Basicity of Amines • assume that the amine, RNH2, has a pKb of 3.50 and that it is dissolved in blood, pH 7.40 (pOH 6.60) • we first write the base dissociation constant for the amine and then solve for the ratio of RNH3+ to RNH2 • substituting values for Kb and OH- gives

  19. Reactions of Amines • The most important chemical property of amines is their basicity • amines, whether soluble or insoluble in water, react quantitatively with strong acids to form water-soluble salts

  20. Reactions of Amines • example: complete each acid-base reaction and name the salt formed

  21. Reactions of Amines • example: complete each acid-base reaction and name the salt formed • solution:

  22. Amines End Chapter 16