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T.Y.BSc SEMESTER V HORTICULTURE UNIT IV Irrigation Methods PowerPoint Presentation
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T.Y.BSc SEMESTER V HORTICULTURE UNIT IV Irrigation Methods

T.Y.BSc SEMESTER V HORTICULTURE UNIT IV Irrigation Methods

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T.Y.BSc SEMESTER V HORTICULTURE UNIT IV Irrigation Methods

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  1. T.Y.BSc SEMESTER V HORTICULTURE UNIT IV Irrigation Methods By Mr. Vinodkumar Kushwaha Department of Botany Satish Pradhan Dnyanasadhana College, Thane (W)

  2. WATER • A scientists ‘Goethe’ stated “ Everything originated in the water & • everythings is sustained by water”. • All life forms on earth depends on water. • Water is most abundant constituent of the higher plants. • Living tissues of plants usually contains more than 70% of water. • Source of water include atmospheric water i.e. rain ,snow, mist, • surface water, stored water from ponds & ground water. • Soil acts as a reservior of water for the plants to use through the root • zone system. • When rainfall is inadequate, ultimately application of irrigation • water becomes essential for successful growth of crops.

  3. Role of water in plants • In living tissue water is the medium for many biochemical reactions & • extraction processes. • Inorganic nutrients, photosynthesis, bases & hormones all are transported • in aqueous solution. • It is major constituent of protoplasm. • It imparts turgidity to growing cells & thus maintains their form & structure.

  4. Irrigation In areas where rainfall is scanty, cannot full fill the needs of water. Watering by artificial means is a must for enhancing the crop production. This watering by artificial means is called as ‘Irrigation’. • Purpose: • Proper drainage & irrigation makes the entire field more uniform in soil moisture. • Decreasing the potential loss of nitrogen from soil by microbial denitrification. • Raising water table high. • Reducing the salinity & alkalinity of soil. • Helps in deposition of organic matter with the soil. • Controls soil temperature. • controls harmful insects & pest of soil. • Sources of Irrigation: • Surface water: River, lakes, canals, tanks and reserviors. • Ground water: wells, both shallow and deep wells.

  5. IRRIGATION METHOD • This can be done mainly in three tupes • Overhead Irrigation • Surface Irrigation-flooding type • -Border or bed type • -Furrow type • -Basin type • Underground Irrigation

  6. 1.OVERHEAD IRRIGATION • It is also called sprinkler or aerial Irrigation. • This is done in the form of artificial downpour used by • overhead sprinklers with the help of mechanical pumps , water is lead • through overhead metallic pipes . • This system is suitable for any type of soil. • The chance of soil erosion is limited & every plants gets the • optimum amount of water. • Water soluble chemicals like insecticides, pesticides,fungicides & • fertilizers can be applied through this system. • For lawns this system is very useful.

  7. Introduction:The sprinkler system is ideal in areas where water is scarce. • A Sprinkler system conveys water through pipes and applies it with a minimum amount of losses. • Water is applied in form of sprays sometimes simulating natural rainfall. • The difference is that this rainfall can be controlled in duration and intensity. • If well planned, designed and operated, it can be used in sloping land to reduce erosion where other systems are not possible.

  8. Types of Conventional Sprinkler Systems • a) Fully portable system: The laterals, mains, sub-mains and the pumping plant are all portable. • The system is designed to be moved from one field to another or other pumping sites that are in the same field. • b) Semi-portable system: Water source and pumping plant are fixed in locations. • Other components can be moved. • The system cannot be moved from field to field or from farm to farm except when more than one fixed pumping plant is used.

  9. Types of Conventional Sprinkler Systems • c) Fully permanent system: Permanent laterals, mains, sub-mains as well as fixed pumping plant. • Sometimes laterals and mainlines may be buried. • The sprinkler may be permanently located or moved along the lateral. • It can be used on permanent irrigation fields and for relatively high value crops e.g. Orchards and vineyards. • Labour savings throughout the life of the system may later offset high installation cost.

  10. Components of a Sprinkler Irrigation System

  11. Mobile Sprinkler Types • a) Rain gun: A mobile machine with a big sprinkler. • The speed of the machine determines the application rate. The sprinkler has a powerful jet system. • b) Lateral Move: A mobile long boom with many sprinklers attached to them. • As the machine moves, it collects water from a canal into the sprinklers connected to the long boom.

  12. Raingun Irrigation System

  13. Linear Move

  14. SURFACE IRRIGATION • Water is applied to the field in either the controlled or uncontrolled manner. • Controlled: Water is applied from the head ditch and guided by corrugations, furrows, borders, or ridges. • Uncontrolled: Wild flooding. • Surface irrigation is entirely practised where water is abundant. The low initial cost of development is later offset by high labour cost of applying water. There are deep percolation, runoff and drainage problems

  15. 1. Furrow Irrigation • In furrow irrigation, only a part of the land surface (the furrow) is wetted thus minimizing evaporation loss. • Furrow irrigation is adapted for row crops like corn, banana, tobacco, and cabbage. It is also good for grains. • Irrigation can be by corrugation using small irrigation streams. • Furrow irrigation is adapted for irrigating on various slopes except on steep ones because of erosion and bank overflow.

  16. Furrow Irrigation by Cutting the Ridge

  17. Furrow Irrigation with Siphons

  18. A Furrow System

  19. 2.Border Irrigation • In border irrigation, water is applied slowly. • The root zone is applied water gradually down the field. • At a time, the application flow is cut-off to reduce water loses. • Ideally, there is no runoff and deep percolation. • The problem is that the time to cut off the inflow is difficult to determine.

  20. Border Irrigation System

  21. Border Irrigation

  22. 3.Basin Irrigation System • Description: In basin irrigation, water is flooded in wider areas. It is ideal for irrigating rice. • The area is normally flat. • In basin irrigation, a very high stream size is introduced into the basin so that rapid movement of water is obtained. • Water does not infiltrate a lot initially. • At the end, a bond is put and water can pond the field. • The opportunity time difference between the upward and the downward ends are reduced.

  23. Basin Irrigation Diagram I rrigation time.

  24. Underground Irrigation • This is also called as sub surface Irrigation because the irrigation is • done by underground water by means of performated pipes made up • of wood, earth, concrete etc. • Sub-surface irrigation is effective on land with sandy ,peat , from a • root depth upto 1.5 to 3 mt. • The initial cost of this method is very high but the water is used very • efficiently. • Evaporation loss in this method is negligible.

  25. Thank you………..