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Berbers al-Andalus - Andalucia 711-16 Muslim conquest of Spain PowerPoint Presentation
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Berbers al-Andalus - Andalucia 711-16 Muslim conquest of Spain

Berbers al-Andalus - Andalucia 711-16 Muslim conquest of Spain

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Berbers al-Andalus - Andalucia 711-16 Muslim conquest of Spain

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  1. Berbers al-Andalus - Andalucia 711-16 Muslim conquest of Spain 732/33 Defeat of Muslims by Charles Martel at Tours/Poitiers 749-50 ‘Abbasids oust Umayyads from caliphate in Middle East 756 ‘Abd al-Rahman (r. 756-88) takes Cordoba, rules as emir of al-Andalus

  2. 909 Fatimids establish territories in N. Africa 912-61 Reign of ‘Abd al-Rahman III 929 ‘Abd al-Rahman III declares himself caliph, founding Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba 961-76 Reign of al-Hakam II

  3. musta‘ribun - Mozarabs 976 Death of al-Hakam II. Hisham accedes to throne, but Ibn Abi ‘Amir takes control 1031 Collapse of the Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba

  4. 652-902 Gradual conquest of Sicily by Muslims

  5. Early 9th c. Muslims take Crete 846 Muslim forces pillage Rome 891 Muslim forces settle at Nice, conduct attacks in France 915 Byzantines expel Muslims from central Italy 962 Byzantines re-take Crete 972/73 Muslim forces driven from Nice

  6. 1061-91 Normans under Roger (r. 1061-1101) take Sicily

  7. 895 Magyars arrive in Hungary c. 900 Magyars enter German lands 906 Magyars plunder Saxony. Over next two decades attack Germany, Italy, France 937 Magyars reach Reims 955 Otto I (r. 936-73) defeats Magyars at the Lechfeld

  8. 968 Otto I establishes bishopric of Magdeburg End 9th c./start 10th c. Bohemia, under influence of bishopric of Regensburg, converts to Christianity c. 960-92 Reign of Prince Mieszko of Poland who converts to Christianity and (in 990) places Poland directly under papal protection

  9. Second half of 10th c. Magyars accept missionaries from Regensburg and Salzburg into Hungary 997-1038 Reign of St Stephen as King of Hungary 1000 Stephen receives crown from pope

  10. 863 Byzantine emperor sends Cyril (d. 869) and Methodius (d. 889) as missionaries to Slavs (with Slavonic Gospels) 867 Cyril and Methodius gain papal approval for activities Eventually Croats follow Roman rite, Serbs follow Greek Orthodox rite

  11. 9th c. Bulgars create state in modern Bulgaria, Khan (king) Boris (r. 852-89) interested in converting to Christianity 858 Dispute between Rome and Constantinople as result of replacement of Patriarch Ignatius, by regent Bardas and Emperor Michael III (r. 842-67), with Photius. Pope Nicholas I (p. 858-67) sends legates to investigate, but they are bought off

  12. 863 Nicholas summons church council at Rome, which repudiates Photius, re-instates Ignatius. Michael III and Nicholas exchange rejections 864 Baptism of Boris into Greek Orthodox Christianity, with Michael III as sponsor, but Photius disregards Boris’ requests, so Boris seeks papal support. Nicholas writes in support, but raises issue of filioque doctrine

  13. 381 Council of Constantinople approves “The Holy Spirit, who proceeds from the Father” Nicholas writes to Boris with “who proceeds from the Father and the Son (patre filioque)” 867 Synod of eastern bishops excommunicates Nicholas. Start of Photian Schism

  14. 867-86 Reign of Basil I as Byzantine Emperor 870 Boris returns to Greek Orthodox Church 877 Death of Ignatius. Photius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople, this time with papal approval 879 End of Photian Schism 890 Bulgaria adopts Slavonic liturgy of Cyril and Methodius