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Inspections at MSW Landfills

Inspections at MSW Landfills

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Inspections at MSW Landfills

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  1. Inspections at MSW Landfills Original Content is from USEPA Telecourse APTI T – 021-01 “The Use of Federal Reference Methods in the Evaluation of Landfill Gas Emissions” by William T. “Jerry” Winberry, Jr. EnviroTech Solutions

  2. Landfill

  3. Landfill Gas Collection System Components Electrical power out Controlled emissions Final soil cap cover Gas collection header Recoverysystem Enclosed flare Landfill gas Gas collection wells

  4. Landfill Gas Collection System Components Fill material Surface monitoring Ambient air monitoring Gas leaks Uncontrolled emissions Landfill gas Perimeter vents Groundwater monitoring well Leachate manhole

  5. Reasons for Inspections of MSW Landfills • Compliance determination • Complaint investigation • Source plan approval • Review or renewal of permits • Special studies

  6. Pre-Inspection Procedures • File review • Regulation review • Equipment checks

  7. File Review • Initial design capacity report • Annual or 5-year NMOC emission rate report • Permit to construct (P/C) and permit to operate (P/O) • Collection and control system design plan

  8. File Review • Annual reports • Landfill closure reports • Control equipment removal reports • Previous inspection reports • Enforcement action: Complaints and notice of violation

  9. File Review • Enforcement action taken, orders of abatement, variance history • Compliance test data • Equipment malfunction reports • SSM Plan and any events

  10. Regulation Review • Identify all rules that apply to the facility • Review any references to the specific rules which are noted in the landfill file • Be familiar with each standard and exemption

  11. Equipment Check • Hard hat • Gloves • Safety vest • Respirator/dust mask • Method 21 system route map • Steel-toed safety shoes

  12. Equipment Check Contd.: • Safety glasses • First aid kit • Flashlight • Field checklist • Portable monitor (gas detector system) • Digital manometer

  13. Portable Monitor • Obtain certified portable gas monitor • Verify operating conditions and specifications • Assemble and start-up instrument according to manufacturer’s instructions • Leak check sampling system

  14. Portable Monitor Contd.: • Evaluate response factor (RF) with known concentration of certified methane gas • Evaluate calibration precision with certified methane gas standard using zero gas or background as low calibration point • Repeat two additional times

  15. Portable Monitor Contd.: • Calculate calibration precision • Check response time during calibration precision evaluation • Verify sample flow rate

  16. Notify the Landfill • Notify landfill of inspection so that relevant documents can be made available for review • Obtain map and/or diagram of the landfill with elevations, wellhead locations, header system placement and control devices.

  17. Pre-entry • Look at landfill from neighborhood • Take wide angle picture of landfill for file • Talk to neighbors about activities at landfill

  18. Pre-entry • Where possible, drive around the outside perimeter of the landfill • Notice any landfill odors? • See any visible emissions? • Litter in neighborhood which looks like it originated from the landfill?

  19. Entry • Enter by public access route • Identify yourself, present your credentials • Ask to meet with the site representative

  20. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Explain purpose of inspection and discuss any new rule changes • Answer questions that the source personnel may have • Identify equipment to be used in the inspection

  21. Pre-Inspection MeetingInformation • Verify facility information • Facility name, ownership • Facility address, telephone number • Facility contact name, telephone number • Discuss safety procedures

  22. Pre-Inspection Meeting Information • Review Permit • Verify • that permit is current and posted • that permit is for correct equipment • that permit operating conditions are being met • date permit issued • design capacity information

  23. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Review permit specification from office to on-site • List of equipment/wellheads installed or to be installed • Emission limits to be met • Changes/modifications to permit conditions • Site-specific monitoring requirements

  24. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Operational Logs • Historical emission records and self monitoring data available from past 5-years • Monitoring and calibration logbooks

  25. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Operational logs for active collection systems • Logbooks associated with well head monthly monitoring parameters: • Temperature • Gauge pressure • Gas concentrations of: • Oxygen • Nitrogen

  26. Pre-Inspection Meeting • LFG control system operational logs for flares, co-generation facilities, gas turbines, or internal combustion engines • Calibration, operation, and maintenance records • Equipment “downtime”

  27. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Heat sensor operational records • Continuous temperature recordings • Compliance testing performed since last inspection • LFG monthly gas flow rate • Well concentration readings

  28. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Environmental Data • Average wind speed for today (< 10 mph) • Rain fall over last seven days • Barometric pressure over last seven days

  29. Pre-Inspection Meeting • Sampling Grid Pattern • Obtain from pre-inspection or create a sampling grid pattern over a map of the landfill, with parallel lines approximately 30 meters apart • Start grid pattern at control device, then around perimeter of landfill, then into landfill with parallel lines

  30. Walking route Landfill gas flare facility A

  31. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Start the on-site physical inspection of the landfill at the outer perimeter • Acquire a “background/upwind” concentration of LFG using FRM 21 certified monitor

  32. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Observe visible emissions (VE) • Haul road, flares, energy recovery systems • Continue to control equipment and follow the grid pattern

  33. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Collection and control equipment, note • Comparison between landfill records and visual inspection • Observation of Leaks and maintenance • Operations according to site-specific collection system design plan

  34. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Monitor surface of landfill with FRM 21 gas monitoring probe • Position FRM 21 monitor with tip approximately 2-4 inches off ground • Follow the grid route around perimeter of site, noting a reading every 30 meters. Record readings on field test data sheet (FTDS)

  35. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Enter the site according to the grid route map • Take readings every 30 meters, until the complete landfill surface has been evaluated, using the grid route • Any reading 500 ppm above background should be recorded on FTDS and marked with a flag

  36. Physical Inspection of Landfill • Monitoring surface of landfill • Monitor any crack, hole, breach in the surface, and interface with undisturbed native soil • Monitor around rocks and objects sticking out of the surface of the landfill for possible LFG emissions

  37. Meter Reading - 15,000 ppm 0.1 L/min sample intake rate (minimum rate allowed for Method 21) Leak detector probe tip 1/4 in. dia. Landfill Surface Cover Leak

  38. Meter Reading - 500 ppm 3.0 L/min sample intake rate (maximum rate allowed for Method 21) Leak detector probe tip 1/4 in. dia. Landfill Surface Cover Leak