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Mind The Gap

Mind The Gap

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Mind The Gap

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  1. 1 1 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Mind The Gap

  2. 1 3 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Mind The Gap עיר ללא גבולות Urban underground Stations

  3. 1 A landmark An Icon A Square A Symbol Kyoto Railway Station Lyon Satolas Airport Railway Station Waterloo Station, London London Underground 3 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Borserless Urban underground Stations What are the Urban Roles of Underground Stations? Comparing to railway stations which have acquired urban roles had a major impact on the new City’s Form, Underground Stations tend to be disconnected of the City and practically form another urban layer. Usually the only architectural element which connects the two layers is a circulation structure which will be shown later on. “Kontroll” (Control), frames from the movie

  4. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train The High Line, NYC Schematic section sit. #2 Schematic section sit. #1 Schematic section sit. #3 Hard-Soft, Varied Landscape Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  5. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train The High Line, NYC Field Operations and Diller, Scofidio & Renfro. Renderings of the proposed design for the High Line, NYC Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  6. 2 Research Parametric Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train Abstraction. A structure which relates to the city through mediators. Abstraction. A detached layer that connects to the city through its detachment. Physical mediator and partly sensual. Abstraction. One layer becomes the other. A physical connection that can’t be used physically, but sensually. Research Exercise #1 New Urban Space question ?? Mediator Transportation City research 12

  7. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train King’s Cross Station, London Schematic section showing the arcade and street A Schematic section showing the façade and the square A Schematic plan of ground level, transportation interface, street, square and mediators – a façade and arcade Abstraction. Mediator as an adding to a structure Research Exercise #1 question ?? Mediator Transportation City research 12

  8. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train King’s Cross Station, London Square King’s Cross Station, front view King’s Cross Station, aerial view King’s Cross Station, view from inside King’s Cross Station, rare view Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  9. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train King’s Cross Station, London Lewis Cubit King’s Cross Station, London 1851-2 Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  10. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train The High Line, NYC Abstraction. A detached layer that connects to the city through its detachment. Physical mediator and partly sensual. Schematic plan sit. #3 Schematic plan sit. #1 Schematic plan sit. #2 Schematic section sit. #2 Schematic section sit. #1 Schematic section sit. #3 Hard-Soft, Varied Landscape Research Exercise #1 New Urban Space question ?? Mediator Transportation City research 12

  11. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train The High Line, NYC Field Operations and Diller, Scofidio & Renfro. Renderings of the proposed design for the High Line, NYC Using the mantra “keep it simple, keep it quiet, keep it wild, keep it slow,” the design team created a conceptual framework for the High Line as a whole and for elements along the length of the structure, including planking for the hard-surface pathways, planting, furnishings, access, railings, and lighting. The architects contrast their plan for a slow-paced High Line with the fast-paced Manhattan streets that lie beneath: The plan establishes the High Line as its own world, albeit one that meets the essential operational needs of security, maintenance, environmental sustainability, historic preservation, and commercial activity. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  12. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train The High Line, NYC Field Operations and Diller, Scofidio & Renfro. Renderings of the proposed design for the High Line, NYC Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  13. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train Main Station Stuttgart, Germany Schematic section showing the “mediator” Schematic plan of upper level, city space Schematic section showing upper and lower levels Schematic plan of ground level, transportation interface Abstraction. One layer becomes the other. A physical connection that can’t be used physically, but sensually. Research Exercise #1 question ?? Mediator Transportation City research 12

  14. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train Main Station Stuttgart, Germany Ingenhoven and partners with Frei Otto Main Station Stuttgart, Germany. Projected completion: 2013 Rendering and a soap model. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  15. 2 Research Analyzing the relationship between the urban space and the urban train Main Station Stuttgart, Germany Ingenhoven and partners with Frei Otto Main Station Stuttgart, Germany. Projected completion: 2013 Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  16. 2. Research Relationship between the urban street/city and the urban train Facade Sections Urban map Land - interface Types of encounters Urban map Types perspectives Negative - positive Time?, speed?, information? Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  17. 2 A Mediator as a horizontal instrument C Sky Train Schemes Based on case studies Based on Suggested schemes Mediator Transportation City 6 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Borderless A city and its transport interface Mediators: Sub-Classification of Possible Features Mediator as a vertical instrument Based on

  18. 2 D Schemes Based on case studies Suggested schemes Mediator Transportation City 7 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Borderless A city and its transport interface Mediators: Sub-Classification of Possible Features Mediator as an adding to a structure B Based on A 3D Mediator switching layers Based on

  19. 2 Mediator as a vertical instrument Perceptual connection Physical connection A Mediator as a horizontal instrument Mediator as an adding to a structure Perceptual connection Perceptual connection Physical connection Physical connection B C Perceptual connection Physical connection A 3D Mediator switching layers D Mediator Transportation City 8 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Borderless A city and its transport interface Mediators: Sub-Classification of Possible Features A+B: A horizontal – vertical world requires a mediator – vertical to mediate two horizontal layers or the opposite, that mediating is done normally in just order to move from one layer to the other, and a strong physical connect doesn’t guaranty a perceptual one. C: Adding another functional layer such a hotel or a promenade increases the perceptual connection since using the same space not as a mare passage reconnects it to the city’s activities. D: When one layer becomes the other the perceptual connection gets stronger (movement, eye site).

  20. 2 Leisure B Culture Services Dwelling 9 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Borderless A city and its transport interface Mediators: Classification of Possible Programs Mediator as a functional adding to a structure. What are the possible programs relating to the location (underground or partly underground) and the urban context (a metro station)?

  21. 3 A Design Exercise A transport Station formation process speed Rating stay Dwelling Work Culture Sport Shopping Services Road pavement speed Rating stay rules 30

  22. 3 A Design Exercise A transport Station formation process “Stay” map at station area “Speed” map at station area “Rating” map at station area speed rules 30

  23. 3 A Design Exercise A transport Station formation process Possible movements at station area, plan. Possible movements at station area, section. Suggested junction of movements at station area, section. rules 30

  24. 3 A Design Exercise A transport Station formation process Possible movements at station area, plan. Possible movements at station area, section. Suggested junction of movements at station area, section. rules 30

  25. 3 A Design Exercise A transport Station formation process rules 30

  26. 1 Forces operate outside in. Forces operate inside out. No outside shape 10 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Conceptual Models A city and its transport system Conceptual breathing connections between two systems

  27. 1 10 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Conceptual Models A city and its transport system Conceptual breathing connections between two systems

  28. 3 4 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Linked A Network of underground Stations An additional Circulation layer, An additional perceptual map When Looking at the entire Network of Underground Stations, They normally form, like with one single station, a detached layer of the Urban Circulation System, suggest another way of moving around the city and perceiving it. Thus, Metro maps may form an additional perceptual map of the city. Madrid metro map Rome p.t. map London metro map Berlin p.t. map NY UG map Madrid map Rome map London map Berlin map NY map

  29. 2 Research Questioning my Question Why offer a City and a railway station Mediator? If I now again return to my primary question which wandered about the role of an urban transportation station or system, in the information era, I should ask myself: why a mediator, or why focusing on the connection to the city? (What kind of a connection) Two questions are running through my mind: 1. What is today’s city? 2. Is there a a connection (the kind that I talk about) between other buildings and the city? No. 1 Is so hard to start with… 2. I can look for examples for that: CCA Competition for the design of cities (NY) And back to stations A railway station defining a place (Lille). A transport network helps defining a city (curitiba) The railway station, as a new type of a building redefined a new city space. (history) Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  30. 2 Research Mayne Van Berkel Price Eisenman Reiser+Umemoto NY: CCA Competition for the design of cities Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  31. 2 Research NY: CCA Competition for the design of cities Winner: Peter Eisenman PROJECT PROPOSAL: The City and Building as a UnityIn the twentieth century, the modern architectural project revolved around the city and the social relationships of the individual to the group. In this sense, it contained the necessary duality of inclusiveness and separation. On the one hand, it was necessary to allow the individual, that is, the new psychological subject, to enter into the city and participate in its evolution. This required a certain openness and fluidity of access and motion. On the other hand, the city needed to find separate places within its structure for the different psychological collectives: the new ethnicities, the defining classes, and so forth. Here the issue was not simply inclusion or exclusion but rather the nature of the new boundaries that could accommodate the desires of these groups for their own identifiable urban spaces. The duality of the modern project occurred between these two limits: the needs of the individual and the needs of the group with respect to the city. The effects of the modern project on the urban fabric have been problematic at best. For example, when aspects of Le Corbusier's urban proposals for the Ville Radieuse and the Plan Voisin were integrated in the public housing projects built in New York City in the 1950s and 1960s, the former texture of the urban fabric was ripped apart.Today the city operates with a postmodern consciousness, which erases the clear boundaries and singular identities that typified the modern project. Difference is now dispersed ? it is everywhere and nowhere ? but it is not lost. The postmodern city undercuts common identities; its references are harder to read. Boundaries and edges are blurred by this dispersed otherness, for difference is now experienced as a collective phenomenon. This condition requires not only a different urban pattern and texture from the modern but also a more subtle one. One of the paradoxes of our time, which in a sense is a post-postmodern time, is that the new nature of the computer and its speed of computation can reinstate "the natural" in opposition to the alienated mechanisms of the Machine Age, which opposed nature. For example, the folding and warping of surfaces made possible by the computer appear to us as natural conditions. At the same time, computation can restore the unpredictable and unforeseeable to human intentionality and thus to architecture Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  32. 2 Research NY: CCA Competition for the design of cities Winner’s proposal, Peter Eisenman This paradox occurs because the digital computational processes, which are essentially on/off (+/-), can be speeded up to introduce such a level of complexity that what was formerly striated space, such as the urban grid, can be made to appear smooth. Conceptually, this smoothness is analogous to the structure of a piece of felt, which, because of the density of its weave, makes what is literally striated appear smooth. The computational paradox of (+/-) has the potential to activate a new kind of urbanism, one with new densities and textures created by new proximities.In the world of digital information that occupies the postmodern city, there is also a different space/time condition, one that resides between the former classical dialectic of reality and appearance: this is the virtual. The virtual is a condition in real space that contains the oscillation between past and present time, between figure and ground, between smooth and striated space. This "between" condition of the virtual paradoxically retrieves actual spatial content, that is, the affective experience of space. Equally, the forms of computational space exceed even the most extreme forms of architectural expression, because the human hand can only draw what the eye has seen. An architect cannot presage what the computer can produce. In the history of architecture, from the Gothic to the Baroque to the modern, buildings have always been conceptualized as figural objects on a fundamentally neutral ground. In a major shift away from this thinking, our project proposes a figure/figure rather than figure/ground urbanism. While generated from the complexities that lie within a traditionally gridded ground, the new folded (or "natural") topography introduced in our project overflows this grid, forming an excessive matrix of interconnectivity that both is between figure and ground and reconstitutes each. As such, the project reframes former urban systems and opens them to more varied interpretations. This allows for an alternative urban strategy, one that is already within the existing context and that enables the old and the new to together redefine the whole. Rather than being seen as new, or as different from the old, this strategy blurs those differences through the process of the virtual, or the oscillation of (+/-). Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  33. 2 Research Our project for the west side is an amalgam of striated (existing gridded) space and a new smooth space introduced through the computer in order to blur the traditional figure/ground (+/-) distinction between building and context. This strategy can be seen in the way three "buildings" ? the stadium, the convention centre, and the new Madison Square Garden ? are integrated into a new urban fabric. Traditionally, these structures would be treated as icons of public assembly ? articulated as isolated buildings. In fact, the scale and isolation of these buildings are what has contributed to the destruction of the fabric of the city. In our project these specifically programmed spaces become part of a new continuous fabric of public urban and park space. The city and the building as a unity, as a single thought generating new urban space, blur the edges of the project and modify the city's form.The architectural idea for the west-side project is twofold. The first idea is to warp the ground ? formerly a flat datum of gridded space ? in order to make it figural. This warping gives the figured ground a + charge. As this positive (+) vector pushes upward and outward from its former ground datum (0), it creates an equal and opposite reaction in the space that is now pushed back into the ground, producing another + (if void) charge in what would formerly have been, in the figure/ground dialectic, a negative (-) charge. The double positive charges that result from the warping process lead to a figure/figure condition.The second architectural idea activates the section of the figure/figure condition in different but complementary ways. The sectional space between the building objects (+) meets the new ground, which is now a positive surface (+). The intersection of these two figures creates an interstitial space that would traditionally be seen as residual (-), or between. Here, however, this residual space is activated, so that pushing into the objects and the ground surface creates a positive (+) void space. This residual space, which was produced by the addition of solids, is now seen as figural, or +.On the southern edge, the opposite condition occurs. The warped figural surface of the ground, which now acts as a roof for structures below, is cut into to form subtractive voids. Because these voids are purposeful cuts (subtraction as opposed to addition), they take on a + charge. Thus on both the north and south edges, the voids take on a + value in section. In this way, the old, gridded space reveals the presence of a formerly hidden smooth space, and the smooth space, when cut away, reveals a gridded space. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  34. 2 Research A station Defining a new kind of a place A city and its transport station “This project is based on the hypothesis that the `experience` of Europe will change beyond recognition through the combined impact of the tunnel that links Britain and the Europe, and the extension of the French TGV network to include London. If this hypothesis turns out to be true, the city of Lille - dormant gravity centre of a conceptual triangle - London/Brussels/Paris - which contains more than fifty million inhabitants - will magically acquire a theoretical importance as the receptacle of a wide range of uniquely `contemporary` activities.” “In this fin-de-siècle, `programs` have become abstract in the sense that they are no longer connected to a place or a city; they float and gravitate opportunistically to that site which offers the highest number and quality of connection - which seems nearest to all other places.” S,M,L,XL Rem Khoolaas From: http://www.lillegp.com/anglais/aindex.htm Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  35. 2 Research Other sources of interest John Ruskin (February 8, 1819 – January 20, 1900) was an Englishauthor, poet and artist, although more famous for his work as art critic and social critic. Ruskin's thinking on art and architecture became the thinking of the Victorian and Edwardian eras. מתוך סדנא בינלאומית לתכנית האב למתע"ן של מטרופולין תל אביב. "....הגדלת המודעות לנושאי המפתח להצלחת המתע"ן, ובמיוחד ליצירת מדיניות משולבת של תחבורה ושימושי קרקע." "מהרצאות האורחים עלתה החשיבות של הנגישות לעומת הניידות כמטרה בפרויקטים תחבורתיים. כמו כן הודגש כי מדיניות התכנון צריכה להיות מיושמת באמצעות חבילת אמצעים שתכלול גורמי משיכה לתחבורה ציבורית, ומנגד יצירת גורמי דחייה לשימוש ברכב פרטי." ריד אווינג דיבר על חמשת המרכיבים להצלחתו של פיתוח מוטה תחבורה ציבורית: בראש ובראשונה עומדת הנגישות האזורית בתח"צ....המרכיבים האחרים בסדר החשיבות הם ברמה מקומית יותר: צפיפות, עיצוב אורבאני ועירוב שימושים." "... כל נסיעה בתחבורה ציבורית מתחילה ומסתיימת בהליכה ברגל, ועל כן לאיכות המרחב העירוני להולכי רגל חשיבות עליונה." "גלן לסטר תיאר את תהליך תכנון תכנית אב לתחבורה של וונקובר רבתי. במיוחד התעכב על ההשקעה המרובה בשיתוף הציבור בתכנון..." "..הצורך לעדכן את ערך זמן הנסיעה כדי לשקף בצורה נכונה את חשיבותו לנוסעים..." "מתן מידע בזמן אמיתי לנוסעים, יצירת דימוי אחיד..." “Carry him (the passenger) safely, dismiss him soon: he will thank you for nothing else. All attempt t o please him in other ways are mere mockery, and insults to the things by which you endeavor to do so… Will a single traveler be willing to pay an increased fare on the South Western, because the colors of termini are covered with patterns from Nineveh? …” -John Ruskin Charles Holden is best known for the London Underground stations he designed for the London Passenger Board in the 1920s and 30s. “The first stage was to prepare a graph of the passengers’ movement … The ultimate plan was produced by enclosing the graph by walls.” The result was “form which was purposeful in all its parts rising from the play of imagination on hard facts and natural forces rather then free and uncontrolled fantasy” -Charles Holden Born in Bolton 1875, Holden was later a partner in the Adams, Holden and Pearson Partnership, one of the most prolific and successful firms in Britain. Over the course of his long career Holden designed buildings both in Britain and abroad. From the tallest office building in London, to war memorials, a University and the first of the great public buildings, the modern Underground Station. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  36. 2 Research Image transformation A city and its transport system Curitiba is held as a paragon of urban planning excellence. The city has a notably efficient transportation system, including devotion of lanes on major streets for a bus rapid transit system. The buses are long, split into three sections (bi-articulated), and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with handicapped access. The system, used by 85% of Curitiba's population, is the source of inspiration for the Transmilano in Bogotá, Colombia. The city is also remarkably successful in preserving and caring for its green areas, boasting 54 m² of green space per inhabitant. By the 1960’s, Curitiba's population had ballooned to 430,000, and some residents feared that the growth in population threatened to drastically change the character of the city. In 1964, Mayor Ivo Arzua solicited proposals for urban design. Architect Jaime Lerner, who later became mayor, led a team from the Universidad Federal do Parana that suggested strict controls on urban sprawl, a reduction in traffic in the downtown area, preservation of Curitiba's Historic Sector, and a convenient and affordable public transit system. This plan, known as the Curitiba Master Plan, was adopted in 1968. Lerner closed Rau XV de Novembro, one of the main streets, to traffic and adopted a new road design to minimize traffic. This design, called the Trinary Road System, uses two one-way streets moving in opposite directions which surround a smaller, two-lane street where the express buses have their exclusive lane. In the 1980s, the Rede Integrada de Transporte - RIT (Integrated Transport Network) was created, allowing transit to any point in the city by paying just one fare. At the same time, the city began a project called the "Faróis de Saber" (Lighthouses of Knowledge). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. Today, Curitiba is considered one of the best examples of urban planning world-wide. In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul praised Curitiba as "the most innovative city in the world." Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  37. 2 Research Image transformation A city and its transport system Tourism line: These colorful buses are not part of RIT and their main focus are the city attractions. Paying around R$5,00 allows you to get on and out of the bus four times, on the attraction of your interest. Large windows allow a better sightseeing. Around downtown: These small white buses were designed to circle the downtown area, allowing pedestrians a quick way around. They don't connect to RIT. The city has 12 passenger terminals, where it is possible to change buses without having to pay for a new ticket. They are located on express buses lanes and offer many possibilities to the user. Curitiba has a very simple and practical transportation system. Public transportation consists entirely of buses. There are several different types of buses, each with a different function. Not all of them are part of RIT: Express buses: These are big high-capacity buses that have exclusive traffic lanes, spreading radially from downtown in 5 directions. They wear red livery and operate with tube-stations (above-ground bus stops, allowing quick boarding/exiting the bus) and are part of RIT. They are treated as an "above-ground subway," because of their speed, capacity and frequent service. Conventional buses: These buses also operate radially from downtown, are yellow-colored, and are not part of RIT. Interneighbourhood buses: These are green buses that travel outside downtown. Lines 1 and 2 circle outside downtown, the latter with a bigger radius. Lines 3 to 6 are important connections between some neighborhoods. They connect to RIT. Curitiba has a very simple and practical transportation system. Public transportation consists entirely of buses. There are several different types of buses, each with a different function. Not all of them are part of RIT: Express buses: These are big high-capacity buses that have exclusive traffic lanes, spreading radially from downtown in 5 directions. They wear red livery and operate with tube-stations (above-ground bus stops, allowing quick boarding/exiting the bus) and are part of RIT. They are treated as an "above-ground subway," because of their speed, capacity and frequent service. Conventional buses: These buses also operate radially from downtown, are yellow-colored, and are not part of RIT. Interneighbourhood buses: These are green buses that travel outside downtown. Lines 1 and 2 circle outside downtown, the latter with a bigger radius. Lines 3 to 6 are important connections between some neighborhoods. They connect to RIT. Rapid buses: These are silver buses designed to be the quickest links between two points. They operate in big distances, but with few stops (also using the tube-stations). They connect to the RIT system. Feeding lines: These are local bus lines and are painted orange. All of them link one passenger terminal to a neighborhood and feed the express buses and other RIT lines with passengers. Interhospitals: These white buses are not part of RIT. They circle the town and link all city hospitals. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  38. 2 Research Image transformation A city and its transport system Rapid buses: These are silver buses designed to be the quickest links between two points. They operate in big distances, but with few stops (also using the tube-stations). They connect to the RIT system. Feeding lines: These are local bus lines and are painted orange. All of them link one passenger terminal to a neighborhood and feed the express buses and other RIT lines with passengers. Interhospitals: These white buses are not part of RIT. They circle the town and link all city hospitals. Tourism line: These colorful buses are not part of RIT and their main focus are the city attractions. Paying around R$5,00 allows you to get on and out of the bus four times, on the attraction of your interest. Large windows allow a better sightseeing. Around downtown: These small white buses were designed to circle the downtown area, allowing pedestrians a quick way around. They don't connect to RIT. The city has 12 passenger terminals, where it is possible to change buses without having to pay for a new ticket. They are located on express buses lanes and offer many possibilities to the user. Moving around in a car can be difficult around downtown because of the many one-way streets and the high volume of traffic. This makes the public transportation system very attractive if one wants to go downtown. Apart from that, the trinary system allows a quick way downtown or vice-versa for the car driver. Most avenues are spacious and laid out in a grid, and apart from some points around downtown, traffic jams are not so severe as to unnerve the average driver. Recently, the city installed about 200 traffic radars in the streets, to help decrease the number of accidents. This technology uses sensors under the pavement which trigger a digital camera if the car is above speed limit. The picture, including date and time, is sent to the driver´s home, as a speeding ticket. The system can send these tickets to drivers anywhere in Brazil. The speed limit is usually 60 km/h on avenues, but can be 40km/h in dangerous places or where many pedestrians cross the street. Afonso Pena International Airport is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport. It is integrated in Curitiba's transportation system, with rapid buses and executive buses connecting the airport to the city. Small aircraft may use as well the Bacacheri airport, which today hosts a flight school and an airbase. Research Exercise #1 question ?? research 12

  39. 2 a City, its streets, focal points and transport system a City, its streets and focal points Shrinking perceptual distances – old focal points, new ones. Fabric transformation- stretching the lines between the new points. 5 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Linked A city and its transport interface A Perceptual Fabric transformation An Abstract representation of a city an its intercourse with its transport system: first a city and its focal points, then showing the fabric transformation due to the perceptual changing distances between each two points. Focal Points cause a fabric deformation. They seem to get closer after that deformation (inspiration – add of TGV), and gain an additional meaning through the process of traveling: the way becomes irrelevant, focal points get stronger.

  40. 3 11 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Linked Underground Stations formation Conceptual formation of a generic diagram for 10 underground stations in different locations 1= UG TRAIN PATH 2= HIGH RATING+HIGH STAY 3= HIGH RATING+LOW STAY 4= BRIDGE 5= LOW RATING+LOW STAY 6= LOW RATING+HIGH STAY 7= “STATION” 8= ROAD 4 3 5 1= 200 2= 220 3= 310 4= 176 5= 84 6= 231 7= 192 8= 190 2 6 1 7 8 Station #1 Station #2 Station #3 Station #4 Station #5 Station #6 Station #7 Station #8 Station #9 Station #10

  41. 3 Section #1 Section #2 Section #3 Section #4 Section #5 Section #6 12 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Conceptual Models Underground Stations formation Conceptual formation of one station based on different forming sections

  42. 3 City Flows Local Sections 13 Exercise #1 Research Question Conceptual Models Method Exercise #1 Exercise #1 Linked Underground Stations formation Formation of one station based on different forming sections CT Tube is constructed by two sets of flows, two sets of contexts: the entire underground city network and the urban space which it is located in. Adding a new tube to surrounding it give a potential play with its outside structure, is the inside tube is lit. 30

  43. 4 Structure Formation Responding to two contexts CT Tube is constructed by two sets of flows, two sets of contexts: the entire underground city network and the urban space which it is located in. Adding a new tube to surrounding it give a potential play with its outside structure, is the inside tube is lit. C T T u b e C iTy T u b e + The third Dimension is formed with attention to local sections Schematic Plan and section, Parallel City movements crossing at junction 30

  44. City Flows Local Sections 4 Structure Formation Responding to two contexts CT Tube is constructed by two sets of flows, two sets of contexts: the entire underground city network and the urban space which it is located in. Adding a new tube to surrounding it give a potential play with its outside structure, is the inside tube is lit. C T T u b e C iTy T u b e 30

  45. 4 Structure Formation City CT CT Tube is constructed by two sets of flows, two sets of contexts: the entire underground city network and the urban space which it is located in. Adding a new tube to surrounding it give a potential play with its outside structure, is the inside tube is lit. C T T u b e C iTy T u b e 30

  46. 4 Structure Formation Ariel view, Two Tubes Plans Ariel view, One Tubes CT Tube is a part of network tubes which conceptually form one large tube which runs along the city, catching its flows. It is designed as a cut tube, and the continuation of it (of some of the flows) is practically in the next tube. All the tubes form one space which is joined together by the new network – the underground network. City Museum Pedestrian Walk C T T u b e C iTy T u b e Plan at Upper levels Sports Ave. Car Bridge Shopping Center Plan at Upper levels Plan at lower levels Underground Path Junction Design Exercise rules 30

  47. 4 Structure Formation Forming Sections Forming Section at North End C T T u b e C i T y T u b e Forming Section before junction section Forming Section at Junction Forming Section at South Design Exercise rules 30

  48. 4 Structure Formation Design Options C T T u b e C i T y T u b e Designing by forming Tracks “locking” inner space Designing by forming sections with two tubes Designing by forming sectionswith two tubes Design Exercise rules 30

  49. ספציפית. • "רומאי"). • מה בכל זאת ההבדל בין המפרקים האלו למפרקים שיכולים להיווצר בנקודות בהן עתידה לעבור הרכבת הקלה? העובדה שתחנות הרכבת הן חלק מ-network, כלומר כל אחת מהן היא חלק מרשת נקודות רב שכבתיות. כעת יש שתי אפשרויות. הראשונה היא לטעון כי הרשת אינה רלוונטית לבעיה הרב שכבתית הנקודתית. במקרה זה אין כלל חשיבות לתחנת הרכבת; ואפשר להמשיך לפרויקט עירוני רב שכבתי שאולי קיימת בו תחנה ואולי לא. האפשרות השנייה תהיה לטעון כי היא אינה ברת – התעלמות. לדעתי שתי האפשרויות רלוונטיות. • בהתייחסות לרשת, יתכן והיא טוענת בכוח נוסף את ה"מפרק העירוני". הרשת יוצרת בין הנקודות הרב שכבתיות חיבור נטול זיהוי חללי ובעל מימדי זמן ומהירות שונים מהרגיל הצפוי בעיר. באופן מסוים, אפשר לחשוב שהחיבור הזה יוצר העלמות של מאפייני תווי החיבור ומתרחש כמו "שיגור"מנקודה רב שכבתית אחת לאחרת. העובדות האלו חשובות מכיוון שהעלמות תווי החיבור הזה יוצרת רצף או רצף יחסי בין החללים הרב שכבתיים. תפיסת העיר משתנה. במקרה זה אפשר להמשיך לפרויקט שנבנה רק מחשבות • בסמסטר שעבר נקודת המוצא שלי הייתה תחנת רכבת, הצגתי נושא שבאופן ראשוני דורש חקירה של סוג מבנה מסוים. אולם כל השאלות ששאלתי או ניסיתי לשאול סביב הנושא שהצגתי – תחנת רכבת תת קרקעית עירונית- לא נגעו לסוג המבנה כלל. המחקר שהצגתי לא נגע להתרחשות בתחנת הרכבת, התנועה שמתקיימת בה, המהות שלה כחלל שהות או מעבר. השאלות שהצגתי נגעו למיקום היחסי שלה בעיר, לתפקיד שלה בעיר, הקשר הפיזי לעיר, הקשר התפיסתי לעיר. למעט ההבחנה הבסיסית כי תחלופת האנשים בתחנת הרכבת יכולה להוות סוג של תשדורת מהעיר לעיר, לא נגעתי בנושאים הרלוונטיים לפונקציה הזו ספציפית. • על כן אעזוב לרגע את עניין הפונקציה הספציפית. נניח לדוגמא – חלל עירוני רב תכליתי מסוים באותו המיקום. העניין והבעיה נוצרים מהמיקום היחסי – חלל תת קרקעי בעיר. כלומר, ישנה נקודה מסוימת בעיר שהופכת רב שכבתית. בתל אביב, כמו בערים אחרות בעולם, ישנם חללים שחורגים מרקמתה הדו-מימדית של העיר והופכים רב שכבתיים. דוגמא למקומות כאלו – כיכר דיזנגוף, כיכר אתרים. אפשר לקרוא בחללים מהסוג הזה פוטנציאל להיות "מפרק עירוני" (המודל האחרון שלי לא מצליח להיות מפרק אלא הוא יותר איקוני, חד מימדי, "רומאי").

  50. דיון בסוג מבנה- תחנת- רכבת מופע יחידני דיון בבעיית הרב- שכבתיות בעיר מופע רשתי רק מחשבות • בסמסטר שעבר נקודת המוצא שלי הייתה תחנת רכבת, הצגתי נושא שבאופן ראשוני דורש חקירה של סוג מבנה מסוים. אולם כל השאלות ששאלתי או ניסיתי לשאול סביב הנושא שהצגתי – תחנת רכבת תת קרקעית עירונית- לא נגעו לפונקציה. המחקר שהצגתי לא נגע להתרחשות בתחנת הרכבת, התנועה שמתקיימת בה, המהות שלה כחלל שהות או מעבר. השאלות שהצגתי נגעו למיקום היחסי שלה בעיר, לתפקיד שלה בעיר, הקשר הפיזי לעיר, הקשר התפיסתי לעיר. למעט ההבחנה הבסיסית כי תחלופת האנשים בתחנת הרכבת יכולה להוות סוג של תשדורת מהעיר לעיר, לא נגעתי בנושאים הרלוונטיים לפונקציה הזו ספציפית. • אעזוב לרגע את עניין הפונקציה הספציפית. נניח לדוגמא – חלל עירוני רב תכליתי מסוים באותו המיקום. העניין והבעיה נוצרים מהמיקום היחסי – חלל תת קרקעי בעיר. כלומר, ישנה נקודה מסוימת בעיר שהופכת רב שכבתית. בתל אביב, כמו בערים אחרות בעולם, ישנם חללים שחורגים מרקמתה הדו-מימדית של העיר והופכים רב שכבתיים. דוגמא למקומות כאלו – כיכר דיזנגוף, כיכר אתרים. אפשר לקרוא בחללים מהסוג הזה פוטנציאל להיות "מפרק עירוני" (המודל האחרון שלי לא מצליח להיות מפרק אלא הוא יותר איקוני, חד מימדי, "רומאי").