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Chapter 50 Disorders of Motor Function

Chapter 50 Disorders of Motor Function

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Chapter 50 Disorders of Motor Function

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  1. Chapter 50Disorders of Motor Function

  2. Motor Cortex • Highest level of motor function • Precise, skillful, intentional movements • Speech, flexor muscles of limbs, etc. • Controlled by the primary, premotor and supplementary motor cortices in the frontal lobe • Receives information from the Thalamus, cerebellum and basal ganglia

  3. Motor Cortex Primary motor cortex Responsible for execution of a movement. Adjacent to central sulcus Motor Humunculus Premotor cortex (areas 6 and 8) Generates intricate plan of movement. Throwing a ball or picking up a fork

  4. Motor Cortex Supplementary motor cortex • Involved in the performance of complex, skillful movements • (areas 6 and 8)

  5. Homunculus

  6. Basal Ganglia • A group of deep, interrelated subcortical nuclei that play an essential role in control of movement • Receives indirect input from the cerebellum and from all sensory systems, including vision, and direct input from the motor cortex • Functions in the organization of inherited and highly learned and rather automatic movement programs • Also involved in cognitive and perception functions

  7. Structural Components of the Basal Ganglia • Caudate nucleus • Putamen • Globuspallidusin the forebrain • SubstantiaNigra (midbrain) • Subthalamic nucleus

  8. Structural Components of the Basal Ganglia • Caudate + Putamen =Striatum • Putamen + GlobusPallidus = Lentiform nucleus

  9. Motor System Overview • Cortex sends messages to the caudate and putamen of the basal ganglia • Acts on the Thalamus • Then to the supplementary motor cortex for review and editing • Then to the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex • Then to the brain stem and spinal cord • The cerebellum – ensures the desired movements occur smoothly

  10. Basal Ganglia • Basal Ganglia monitors sensory information coming into the brain • sends it to the right place to be stored as a memory

  11. Four Functional Pathways Involving Basal Ganglia • A dopamine pathway from the substantianigra to the striatum • A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway from the striatum to the globuspallidus and substantianigra • Acetylcholine-secreting neurons, which are important in networks within the neostriatum • Multiple general pathways from the brain stem that secrete norepinephrine, serotonin, enkephalin, and several other neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex

  12. Thalamus • It relays to the cerebral cortex information received from other regions of the brain and spinal cord. • Sends information down spinal cord to the body • a brain “switching station”

  13. Thalamus • The cerebral cortex is interconnected with the Thalamus • Excitatory circuit • If unmodulated would cause hyperactivity = stiffness and rigidity with a continuous tremor (tremor at rest) • Basal Ganglia modulates the Thalamic excitability by an inhibitory loop

  14. The cerebellum receives continuous information about the sequence of muscle contractions from the brain • Receives sensory information from the peripheral parts of the body • Proprioception • sequential changes in the status of each body part

  15. Brain Stem Midbrain • Associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation Pons • Nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture

  16. Brain Stem Medulla • Contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers dealing with autonomic, involuntary functions • Breathing, heart rate and blood pressure

  17. Spinal Cord Structure and Function • White Matter Pathways • Myelinated axons surrounding gray matter = cell bodies and their synaptic interconnections • Central Butterfly of Gray Matter • Collections of motor neurons with related function in the anterior horns • Sensory relay neurons in the posterior horn

  18. Dorsal Ventral

  19. Ascending (Sensory) Pathways • AnterolateralSpinothalamic Tract • Carries information from pain, temperature and crude touch receptors to the thalamus (relay station of the brain) • First neuron synapses in the dorsal horn • Second neuron crosses the cord to the region ventral to the central canal and travels in the spinothalamic tract to the thalamus

  20. Ascending Pathways

  21. Ascending (Sensory) PathwaysDorsal Columns • Medial Leminiscal Pathways • Carries information from the skin of the lower and upper limbs (light touch, vibration, ability to discriminate between adjacent stimuli, pressure) • Carries information from shoulder, arm and finger on position and tension in muscles and tendons, movement, etc. • Dorsal root ganglion to the cord, to the dorsal column of white matter, to a nucleus in the medulla to the thalamus to the cortex for conscious perception

  22. Descending Pathway

  23. Descending (Motor) Pathways • Lateral Corticospinal Tract (Pyramidal Tract) • Carries movement signals from the cerebral cortex to the motor neurons in the spinal cord • Crosses over in the medulla • Travels down the cord in a lateral position • Passes into the gray matter in the cord to synapse with the motor neuron

  24. Descending (Motor) Pathway • Extrapyramidal Pathways (Multineuronal Pathways) • Provides for the support of movements of the lateral corticospinal tract • Movements of the trunk, proximal limb muscles, balance, posture, orienting to sight or sound and more.

  25. Pyramidal motor system • Originates in the motor cortex • Controls all of our voluntary movements • Consists of upper motor neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex and lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord Extrapyramidal motor system • Originates in the basal ganglia • Includes the substantianigra, caudate, putamen, globuspallidus, thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus. • Provides background for the more crude, supportive movement patterns

  26. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) • Rapidly progressive weakness, muscle atrophy, spasticity, dysphagia • Early symptoms: muscle weakness in an arm or leg, twitching, slurred speech • Death within 2-3 years due to respiratory compromise • Sensory and cognitive function are unaffected

  27. Locations of MotorneuronsAffected by ALS • The anterior horn cells of the spinal cord are affected • Death of LMNs leads to denervation, with subsequent shrinkage of musculature and muscle fiber atrophy. • The UMNsof the cerebral cortex are affected later • Lastly the motor nuclei of the brain stem, particularly the hypoglossal nuclei are affected Lou Gehrig

  28. xv Steven Hawking


  30. Spinal Cord Trauma • Often leads to paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the location and extent of the injury • Hyperextension Injury • When the forehead is struck and driven posteriorly • Diving impact in shallow water • May tear the anterior spinal ligament and spinal cord may contact the vertebral body

  31. Trauma to the Spinal Cord • Hyperflexion Injury • When the head of shoulders are struck from behind by an object of considerable weight or from a fall

  32. Spinal Cord Trauma • Concussion • Mild injury, transient and reversible • Contusion • Severe trauma with hemorrhagic necrosis, edema and softening of the cord – Myelomalacia, • or blood in the cord – Hematomyelia • Laceration or Tansection

  33. Cervical Contusion

  34. Disorders Arising in the Basal Ganglia • Characteristics of Disorders of the Basal Ganglia • Involuntary movements • Alterations in muscle tone • Disturbances in body posture

  35. Characteristics of Disorders of the Basal Ganglia • Involuntary movements • Alterations in muscle tone • Disturbances in body posture

  36. Types of Involuntary Movement Disorders • Tremor = Trembling or vibrating • Tics = A habitual spasmodic contraction of the muscles, most often in the face • Chorea = Irregular writhing movements • Athetosis = Wormlike twisting of limb • Ballismus = Violent flinging motion of limbs • Dystonia = Abnormal posture • Dyskinesias = Bizarre wriggling movements • TardiveDyskinesia • Develops due to use of antipsychotic medications

  37. Parkinson Disease • Characteristics • 0.3% of the general population has Parkinson Disease = 80,000 people • Usually begins after 50 years of age • Affects men twice as often as women • Course of the disease is 10-20 years • Clinical syndrome • Parkinsonism • James Parkinson, 1817 = ‘shaky palsy’

  38. Parkinson Disease • Degeneration of pigmented neurons (containing dopamine) in the substantianigra • Cause unknown: May be environmental/genetic • Early symptoms: tremor, rigidity, slow movement • Later: cognitive problems, dementia, dyskinesia • Gross: atrophy of substantianigra • Microscopic: Lewy bodies (inclusions in neurons)

  39. Parkinson Disease • Cogwheel-type motion • Ratchet-like movements • Bradykinesia • Slowness initiating and performing movements • Difficulty walking • Neuropsychiatric disorders

  40. xv Parkinson disease (R) : atrophy of substantianigra

  41. xv Parkinson disease: Lewy body

  42. xv Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali


  44. Huntington Disease • Degeneration of basal ganglia and cerebral cortex • Early symptoms: lack of coordination, unsteady gait • Later: chorea (involuntary writhing), psychiatric symptoms, dementia • Autosomal dominant mutation on chromosome 4 • Begins in 30s-40s; slow progression over 10-20 years