What is Science? • Science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know.”
Inquiry • What is inquiry? • A- People ask questions about what they observe in nature and actively seek answers. • Ex. Houseplants grow toward a light source. • If we rotate the plant will its direction of growth still go toward light source? • What direction would the plant grow In the dark?
Observation and Data • The questions that drive scientific inquiry are based on observations. • Observation- • Use of senses (vision or hearing) to gather information. • Data- Recorded observations.
Quantitative vs Qualitative Data • Quantitative: • Collecting data with numbers. • Ex. Measurements. • Qualitative: • Writing with descriptions instead of measurements. Pictures and drawings. • Ex. Jane Goodall spent decades recording her observations of chimpanzee behavior in the jungle.
Quantitative vsQualitative? • 1. The lion woke up at sunrise everyday and cleaned his paws. This lion mated with the females lions. • A. Qualitative
Quantitative vsQualitative? • 2. • There were 7 ant hills in the grass. • The alligator grew 1 inch every week. • A. Quantitative
Inference • Inference- A logical conclusion based on observations and prior knowledge. • Ex. What can you infer if you hear a doorbell ring? • A. When a doorbell rings you infer that someone is at the door.
Observation: • Four place setting • No drinking cups • Empty plates • Infer: • Four people • Food is somewhere hidden • Drinks will be from cans
What can you observe from this graph? • Girls start out taller than boys • Boys eventually are taller than girls
2.2 Hypothesis “The Scientific Method” • Hypothesis- Is a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question or an explanation on trial.
Scenario • It’s late at night and you hear thunder and rain. Wind begins to pick up and you see a tree fall. Your power goes out. What do you reach for? • A. Flashlight • The flash light does not work!
Scenario • What is our observation? • Flashlight does not work. • What is our question? • What’s wrong with the flashlight? • What is our hypothesis? • The batteries are dead.
Scenario • What is our prediction? • If the batteries are dead and we replace them, the flashlight will work. • What is our test? • Replace the batteries.
Designing a Controlled Experiment • Variable- • A condition that can differ within the experiment. • Controlled Experiment- • An experiment that tests the effect of a single variable.
Case Study Snakes • Many poisonous animals are brightly colored with distinctive patterns. There are also mimics. • Coral snake (poisonous) Scarlet king snake (Not p)
What is the function of mimicry? • What kind of experiment can you design to find the function of mimicry?
Observation? • Both types of snakes have red, yellow, and black rings. • Question? • What is the function of the kingsnakes’ mimicry of coral snakes? • Hypothesis? • Mimicry of coral snakes helps protect the kingsnake from predators.
Prediction? • If predators confuse the kingsnakes with coral snakes, then predators should attack fewer ringed snakes than brown artificial snakes. • Experiment? • Scientists place brown artificial snakes in forest and see how many attack it gets from predators compared to ringed snake.
Scientific method gone wrong! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrzMhU_4m-g • Observation: • Village thinks a woman is a witch. • Question: • Is she a witch?!
Hypothesis: • “If she weighs the same as a duck, then she’s made of wood, therefor SHE’S A WITCH!” • Test: • “She’s a witch, burn her!”
2.3 Understanding Science Are these figures real? What do you need to prove that they are real?
Evidence • Evidence- • Consists of a collected body of data from observations and experiments. • Theory- • A well-tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observations.
Hypothesis vs Theory • Hypothesis- “Mimicking poisonous snakes is an adaptation that protects nonpoisonous snakes from predators.” • Theory- “Adaptations such as mimicry evolve by natural selection.” • Only become theory with extensive supporting research!
Models • Models- • Are physical, mental, or mathematical representations of how people understand of process an idea. Ex. Drawings, graphs, 3 dimensional objects, computer program.
Science, Technology, and Society • Technology- • Apply scientific understanding for some specific purpose. • Microscope? • Observe microorganisms • Stem cell research? • Prevent heritable disease