Knowledge Acquisition PHE 498
Epistemology • A branch of philosophy which deals with the basic question: “How do we come to know”. Knowledge acquisition applies some form of SYSTEM. That is, there is some form of systematic application to impart knowledge.
Sources of Knowledge • Experience • Authority • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive reasoning • Scientific Method
Experience • Based on ___________ • Shortcomings: • Verification • Replication • Personal System
Authority • Based on position of expertise, e.g., lawyer • Based on position of power, e.g., school superintendent. • Shortcomings • How does authority (be careful when addressing authority)
Deductive Reasoning • Thinking process in which one proceeds from general to specific statements using prescribed rules of logic. Henceforth, the application of a syllogism. • Example: • All men are mortal • The king is a man • Therefore, the king is mortal
Deductive Reasoning • How is truth determined in deductive reasoning? • What would be some shortcomings of deductive reasoning as a source to acquire knowledge?
Inductive Reasoning • Observations are made and inferences are developed based on the collected observations. • Truth is derived through the senses most notably empirical evidence. • Every rabbit that has ever been observed has lungs. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.