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Using Rubrics as a Means of Performance Assessment. Sarah Miller FDN 5560, Spring 2005 Click HERE to return to the Documentation. Definition of Performance Assessment:.
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Using Rubrics as a Means of Performance Assessment Sarah Miller FDN 5560, Spring 2005 Click HERE to return to the Documentation
Definition of Performance Assessment: • “An approach to measuring a student’s status based on the way that the student completes a specified task” (Popham, 2005, p. 177) • Means different things to different teachers: short answer questions, artistic critique, scene performance
The most common way to judge performance-oriented responses is by using a scoring procedure called a RUBRIC
Definition of Rubric • “Set of scoring guidelines for evaluating students’ work” (Whitcomb, 1999, p.26) • “A set of criteria, usually ranging from performance that is considered unacceptable to minimal through progressive stages which eventually defines that which is observable superior performance” (Callison, 2000, p. 34)
What do rubrics look like? • Constructed using a grid pattern • Evaluation skill levels or learning targets are listed in the left-hand column • Levels of performance are listed across the top of the grid • 3 – 5 levels of performance can be selected per rubric • Try to limit learning targets to a reasonable number, one you’re willing to grade!
Additional Performance Descriptors: • “Excellent, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory” • “Strong, Developing, Limited” • “In-Progress, Novice, Intermediate, Advanced” • Numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 • Letter grades: A, B, C, D, F
Key to rubric-writing success: • Should be based on the learning targets that each instructional unit intends to achieve • MUST be generated prior to instructional planning
Four Types of Rubrics: • Analytical • Gives points to each response on a criterion-by-criterion basis • Holistic • Awards a single, overall response to all of the evaluative criteria as a whole • Primary Trait • Focuses on a specific trait or feature (i.e. memorization, use of color, etc) • Developmental Continuum • Evaluates learning using “several points or stages of development over time” (Phillip, 2002, p. 27)
Most important features of a rubric, Popham (2005) • The number of criteria used to determine the quality of a student’s response • Whether the rubric will be scored holistically or analytically
Most important features of a rubric, Callison (2000) • Structuring the feedback on the rubric so that the students know how close they are to the highest level of achievement • Providing the rubric to the students at the beginning of the instructional unit
Most important features of a rubric, Stefl-Mabry (2004) • All of the important elements of the learning targets should be included on the rubric • The “ultimate purpose of a rubric is to improve performance” (p. 22) by clarifying expectations for both students and parents
Popham, Callison, and Stefl-Mabry agree on one important feature: • The evaluative rating levels of a rubric should be: • Descriptive • Distinct • Comprehensive
Rubrics are multi-purpose: • Gives clear and succinct definition of what an expected standard is for a given age group and task • Clearly identifies what is acceptable and unacceptable completion of that task • Helps students and parents understand the expectations of a given assignment • Helps students understand what they must do to achieve a top-level in a given standard
Yup, Rubrics are still multi-purpose: • Helps teachers maintain consistency in grading methods • Enhances partnership between parents and the school • Demystifies the grading experience for students • Helps students learn what to work towards in each instructional unit • Helps teachers intervene quickly when a student falters or seems uncertain about how to do the work
How do you write a rubric? • Multiple approaches to writing rubrics • Experts list as many as 11 and as few as 5 steps to use • It’s like riding a bike – • Need lots of practice to “catch your balance” with writing rubrics • You might fall off the rubric-writing bike – hop back on and try again • Be adventurous – try different “paths” until you find the ones that work best for you
Rubric-writing steps from Stefl-Mabry (2004), Phillip (2002), and Popham (2005) • Identify the intended outcome/skill • Make sure the skill (or skills) to be assessed are significant • Determine what student performance would demonstrate the achievement of the skill/outcome • Choose the type of rubric to use • Critically evaluate the rubric – does it match your learning targets? • Match the length of the rubric to your own tolerance for detail
PROS Forces teachers to increase focus on instructional content and learning targets Improves teacher consistency and objectivity Gives students a clearer understanding of their progress CONS Rubrics that lack clarity can create chaos and confusion among students Takes time & practice to learn to write good rubrics Letter grades are still being used PROS AND CONS OF RUBRICS
Rubrics in the Fine Arts Classrooms • Historically, traditional grading has been difficult in fine arts classes • Standardized tests do not accurately reflect performance values • Conflict between which to emphasize: “process” or “product” • Subjective nature of both “process” and “product” can lead to inconsistency in grading • Rubrics enable teachers to judge both process and product
Rubrics in the Fine Arts Classrooms • Helps makes grading of subjective performances more objective, equitable, and accurate • Enables teachers to create evaluative standards for multiple areas such as: demonstrations, artistic critiques, working exhibitions, rehearsals, practice sessions, sketch books, singing on pitch, playing instructional games, monologues, playing correct rhythms, scene work, solo or group singing, audience etiquette, scenic design, etc.
Rubric Resources • www.rubrics.com • http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php • www.rubrics4teachers.com • www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics • www.4teachers.org
Rubrics – the bottom line • They “examine the student in the actual process of learning” (Rose, 1999, p. 30) • They provide “an evaluation grid or map so the learner knows what is expected and what will be evaluated (Callison, 200, p. 35) • Provides a “checklist for success” for students, parents, and teachers