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Libraries, Brain Development, and Literacy

Libraries, Brain Development, and Literacy

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Libraries, Brain Development, and Literacy

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  1. Libraries, Brain Development, and Literacy Ontario Library Association Super Conference 2005 Toronto, Ontario By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR February 4, 2005

  2. 03-072 CIAR The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

  3. 03-073 CIAR Programs Population Health Human Development Economic Growth

  4. 03-115 LITERACY

  5. Economic Inequality and Literacy Inequality 01-064 36 USA 34 UKM IRL 32 30 DEU CAN Gini coefficient 28 NLD NOR 26 Liberal Market Economy 24 SWE Co-ordinated Market 22 Economy FIN DNK 20 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Literacy inequality

  6. Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD 01-040 Level 1: indicates persons with very poor skills. Level 2: people can deal with material that is simple Level 3: is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life Level 4 and 5: describe people who demonstrate command of higher-order processing skills

  7. 04-025 Gradients and Literacy 800 700 V 600 IV III 500 Level Reading Score II 400 I 300 0 200 -2 -1 2 1 0 Socioeconomic Status Willms

  8. Document Literacy 02-061 1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 55 Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5 Sweden 23% 34% Canada 42% 23% Australia 43% 17% United States 48% 18% Chile 85% 3%

  9. Literacy Gradients 00-085 Mean scores 350 Document Literacy Scores 330 310 290 International Sweden Mean 270 250 Netherlands 230 Canada 210 190 Chile 170 0 5 10 15 20 Parents’ Education (years)

  10. 04-168 Percentage of Population Ages 17-25 at Level 4 (Prose) % 25 Sweden 20 15 Canada 10 Finland 5 USA 0 1970 1995 1985 Year O.E.C.D.

  11. 360 00-042 Sociocultural Gradients for Cuba Language 320 Scores By Country Argentina Chile 280 Brazil Language Score Colombia 240 200 8 16 1 4 12 Parents' Education (Years)

  12. Grade 3 Language Scores Argentina _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Brazil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Chile _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Cuba _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Mexico _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 UNESCO, 1998

  13. 05-005 Adult Literacy and Grade 3 Test Scores (Language) % Adult Grade 3 Literacy Test Scores Cuba 96 343 Argentina 96 263 Chile 95 259 Brazil 83 277 Mexico 89.6 252 Casassus, UNESCO, 1998

  14. 05-006 Gross Domestic Product and Grade 3 Test Scores (Language) GDP/Capita Grade 3 Test $ Scores Chile 9.930 259 Argentina 8.498 263 Mexico 6.796 224 Brazil 5.928 256 Cuba 3.100 343 Text text text text text text text text Casassus, UNESCO, 1998

  15. 05-008 Education Spending and Test Achievement Grade 3 (Language) % Spent Test Scores on Education Mexico 26.0 224 Argentina 15.0 263 Chile 14.0 259 Brazil NA 256 Cuba 10.2 343 Text text text text text text text text Casassus, UNESCO, 1998

  16. 05-004 Causes of Variation in Literacy • Conditions of early child development • Quality of school system • Conditions in adult life

  17. WISC Verbal Scores Age 8 – Low Birth Weight Children in ECD Centres (Age 1 to 3) 03-005 Low Birth Weight 16 All 14 Very Low 12 Low 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 350 Days or 400 Days or Intention to Treat Less in Centre More in Centre Hill, Brooks-Gunn, Waldfogel. Dev. Psychol. 2003 July.

  18. Literacy – Early Vocabulary Growth 02-001 1200 High SES Middle SES Cumulative Vocabulary 600 Low SES 0 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 Age - Months B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experiences of Young American Children, 1995

  19. 04-146 Test of Language Development (TOLD) at Age 9 Correlation between vocabulary growth at Age 3 and TOLD at Age 9. 0.74

  20. 04-153 Abecedarian Study – Reading Effect Size Primary Grades Preschool Preschool & Primary Grades 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 Age 8 Age 12 Age 15 Age 21 Age at Testing

  21. 99-092 Romanian Orphanage Study Adopted Canadian Homes < 4 months 8 to 53 months IQ low IQ normal poor attachment good attachment serious behaviour few behaviour problems problems

  22. 01-012 Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour Significant correlation with registered criminality (teenage) appeared for language development at 6, 18, and 24 months Journal of Abnormal Stattin, H. et al - Psychology 102; 369, 1993

  23. 03-115 THE BRAIN AND LITERACY

  24. 04-200 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 12 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages What is a good early start?

  25. 04-201 Sounds and Language R and L English = Fried rice Japanese – Flied lice Before 7 months Japanese and American infants discriminate R and L equally. Not by 12 months.

  26. 04-214 Second Language Acquisition 0.1 0.05 Brain Density * 0 -0.05 -0.1 10 20 30 0 Age when Learned 2nd Language * Left Inferior Parietal Cortex Mechelli et al, Nature 431, 757, 2004

  27. 04-213 Second Language Proficiency 0.1 0.05 Brain Density * 0 -0.05 -0.1 0 1 2 3 4 Proficiency Second Language * Left Inferior Parietal Cortex Mechelli et al, Nature 431, 757, 2004

  28. 05-001 The structure of the human brain is altered by the experience of acquiring a second language. Mechelli, Nature 431, 2004

  29. 03-131 NEUROSCIENCE

  30. 03-013 The Hostage Brain , Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994.

  31. 04-145 The brain is a pathway by which experiences get under the skin to affect health, learning and behaviour.

  32. 04-212 The Founders’ Network Sound Vision Smell Touch Proprioception Taste Neal Halfon

  33. 04-039 Two Neurons RECIPIENT NEURON Axon Synapse SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON Dendrite

  34. 04-142 What Do We Know? The Biology of Brain Development Conditions of early life affect the differentiation and function of billions of neurons in the brain. This early experience sets up the pathways (connections) among the different centres in the brain.

  35. 03-079 Vision - Hubel & Wiesel Eye cataracts at birth prevent development of vision neurons in the occipital cortex

  36. Human Brain Development – Synapse Formation 01-003 Language Sensing Pathways Higher (vision, hearing) Cognitive Function 9 -3 3 1 0 6 4 8 12 16 -6 Months Years Conception AGE C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.

  37. Synaptic Density 03-012 At Birth 6 Years Old 14 Years Old Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.

  38. The Fear Response 02-066 Visual Thalamus Visual Cortex Amygdala Scientific American The Hidden Mind, 2002, Volume 12, Number 1

  39. How Genes Make Memories Stick Axon Dendrite Synapse Hypothetical synapse-to-nucleus signaling molecule 1 Stimulus Activation of CREB 2 CREB Gene Nucleus CREB Activates Gene Synapse-Strengthening Proteins 3 4 Scientific American, Feb. 2005

  40. 03-155 HPA - STRESS PATHWAY

  41. 03-002 Emotional Stimulus HPA Pathway Control Amygdala Hippocampus - + - + Hypothalamus PVN Cortisol Cortisol CRF PIT ACTH Adrenal Cortex LeDoux, Synaptic Self

  42. 04-023 Paraventricular Nucleus Hypothalamus CRH Vasopressin Cortisol Pituitary Gland ACTH Adrenal Gland Blood Vessel ACTH Cortisol Kidney Stress Pathway Cortisol

  43. 03-110 Interaction of the Brain and Immune System CRF Hypothalamus Cortisol CRF Locus Ceruleus Adrenal Gland ACTH Pituitary Gland Vagus Cortisol Cytokines Sympathetic Nervous system Immune Cells Nerve Immune Organs

  44. Genes and Brain Stimulation 01-023 “ … in the dance of life, genes and environment are absolutely inextricable partners. On the one hand, genes supply the rough blueprint for the brain. Then stimulation from the environment, whether it’s light impinging on the retina or a mother’s voice on the auditory nerve, turns genes on and off, fine-tuning those brain structures both before and after birth.” Hyman, S., States of Mind, New York: John Wiley, 1999

  45. 03-063 HEALTH

  46. 04-007 The Brain and Health From the time of the ancient Greeks to the 20th century, it was accepted that the mind can affect illness. The new thrust of the biosciences and the new treatments for disease have recently caused us to have less interest in the mind-body interaction and disease. Esther Sternberg (NIH)

  47. 04-006 Swedish Longitudinal Study – ECD and Adult Health Number of Adverse ECD Circumstances* 1 2 4 3 0 Adult Health Odds - Ratios General Physical 1 1.39 1.54 2.08 2.66 1 1.56 1.53 2.91 7.76 Circulatory Mental 1 1.78 2.05 3.76 10.27 * Economic, family size, broken family and family dissention Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993

  48. Serotonin Gene, Experience, and Depression Age 26 03-089 Depression Risk .70 SS S = Short Allele L = Long Allele .50 SL LL .30 No Abuse Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse Early Childhood A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.

  49. 03-065 BEHAVIOUR

  50. 02-008 “Maltreatment at an early age can have enduring negative effects on a child's brain development and function.” Martin Teicher Scientific American, 2002