Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY 333) Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., NCSP
Chapter 1: Introduction What is Behavior Modification?
Why is behavior Important? • Many major problems are concerned with behavior. • It is more precise than general labels. • Conditions are generally a result of behavior. DO NOT CONFUSE THEM!
What is Behavior? • Definition: Any glandular, chemical, electrical, or muscular response. • Anything a person does • Dead man (or woman) Test • Do not confuse with products of behavior: e.g. Reward
Talking about behavior • Operational Definition: Should be specific not general descriptions. - Free of circular logic: Depression vs. withdrawal
What is Behavior Modification? • General Definition: Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviors in order to help them function more fully in society.
Characteristics of Behavior Modification • Emphasized defining and measuring behavior • Treatment focuses greatly on the environment. • Methods and rationales can be described precisely.
Characteristics of Behavior Modification • Techniques are often applied by individuals in everyday life. - Applied not theoretical • Most techniques are based on research on learning • Emphasizes scientific method • Accountability is placed on everyone involved.
Behavioral Assessment Definition: Collection and analysis of data to: a) identify and describe behavior b) identify possible causes of the behavior c) guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment d) evaluate treatment outcome
Misconceptions about Behavior modification • Rewards and reinforcement are nothing more than bribes. 2. It is drugs, psychosurgery, ECT 3. It only changes symptoms not underlying problems.
Misconceptions about Behavior modification 4. Can be applied to simple, but not complex problems 5. Behavior analysts are cold non-empathetic people. • Behavior modifiers deal only with observable behavior. • Behavior modification is outdated.
Severe Problems • Development disabilities • Schizophrenia • Autism
Definition • Positive Reinforcer: stimulus or event that when presented immediately following a behavior causes the behavior to increase in frequency. • Immediate • Contingent • Increases behavior: Always!
Example: Getting more I statements Before Behavior After (No R+) (Response) (R+) No M&M I Statement M&M
Your Example: Before Behavior After (No R+) (Response) (R+) ? ? ?
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement A. Motivating Operations - Are you hungry enough? - Perhaps your full! B. Reinforcer Size Naked desk dancing anyone?
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement C. Reinforcer Immediacy
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement D. Instructions: Make use of rules 1. They speed up learning process if understood. 2. Can help with delayed reinforcement 3. R+ with instructions may help rule/instruction following.
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement E. Contingent Vs. Non-contingent Reinforcement Increase “TARGET” responding F. Weaning from artificial R+ and changing to natural R+
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement • Unintended Reinforcement- e.g. social, tangible
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 1. Select the behavior to be increased • Should be specific • One that can be controlled naturally • Evaluate reinforcer effectiveness prior to treatment
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 2. Selecting a reinforcer • - readily available • - presented immediately • - Can be used many times without causing satiation. • - Requires only brief consumption • - Use a menu when possible
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 3. Applying positive reinforcement - Explain plan before starting - Reinforce behavior immediately - Tell person what behavior is being reinforced
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 4. Weaning person from reinforcement program - Establish high levels of responding - Look for natural reinforcer - Plan follow-up assessments
BEHAVIORAL CONTINGENCY TABLE (DRAFT 1) Present Stimulus Remove Stimulus Behavior Increases Positive Reinforcement (S+R) Behavior Decreases
Principles of Behavior Modification Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P.
Chapter 13: Negative reinforcement Escape & Avoidance
Negative Reinforcement • Immediate removal (escape) or prevention (avoidance) of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior that increases the probability of that behavior in the future. • Remember: Reinforcement of any kind increases behavior!
Negative Reinforcement: Escape BeforeBehaviorAfter Aversive You do something Aversive Condition Condition Present Not present
Example: Negative Reinforcement (Escape) BeforeBehaviorAfter Getting wet Use an Umbrella Not getting wet from rain from rain
Negative Reinforcement: Avoidance BeforeBehaviorAfter Aversive You do Aversive Condition Something Condition Will occur Does not occur
Your Turn Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through escape and share with your peers.
Example: Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance) BeforeBehaviorAfter You could If You get You do get wet an Umbrella not get wet
Your Turn Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through avoidance and share with your peers.
Major Pitfall Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s escape Model) Before BehaviorAfter Pos. R+ Baby has Baby cries Baby Gets no candy candy Neg. R+ Cry for Mom gives Baby Quits crying candy Candy