Global Pricing for International Markets .Chapter 18 Modular: AfjalHossain Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing PSTU McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Marketing, 13/e
Pricing PolicyPricing Objectives • Pricing as an active instrument of accomplishing marketing objectives • The company uses price to achieve a specific objective • Pricing as a static element in a business decision • Exports only excess inventory • Places a low priority on foreign business • Views its export sales as passive contributions to sales volume
Pricing PolicyParallel Imports • Occurs whenever price differences are greater than the cost of transportation between two markets • Major problem for pharmaceutical companies • Exclusive distribution Parallel imports develop when importers buy products from distributors in one country and sell them in another to distributors who are not part of the manufacturer’s regular distribution system.
Approaches to International PricingFull-Cost versus Variable-Cost Pricing • Variable-cost pricing – the firm is concerned only with the marginal or incremental cost of producing goods to be sold in overseas markets. • Full-cost pricing – companies insist that no unit of a similar product is different from any other unit in terms of cost and that each unit must bear its full share of the total fixed and variable cost
Approaches to International PricingSkimming versus Penetration Pricing • Skimming – a company uses when the objective is to reach a segment of the market that is relatively price insensitive and thus willing to pay a premium price for the value received. • Penetration pricing policy – used to stimulate market and sales growth by deliberately offering products at low prices.
Price Escalation • Costs of exporting • Price escalation • Taxes, tariffs, and administrative costs • Tariff – fee charged when goods are brought into a country from another country • Administrative costs include export and import licenses, other documents, and the physical arrangements for getting the product from port of entry to the buyer’s location
Price Escalation (continued) • Inflation • In countries with rapid inflation or exchange variation, the selling price must be related to the cost of goods sold and the cost of replacing the items • Deflation • In a deflationary market, it is essential for a company to keep prices low and raise brand value to win the trust of consumers • Exchange rate fluctuations • No one is quite sure of the future value of currency • Transactions are increasingly being written in terms of the vendor company’s national currency
Price Escalation (continued) • Varying currency values • Changing values of a country’s currency relative to other currencies • Cost-plus pricing • Middleman and transportation costs • Channel diversity • Underdeveloped marketing and distribution channel infrastructures
Approaches to Lessening Price Escalation • Lowering cost of goods • Lowering tariffs • Lowering distribution costs • Using foreign trade zones to lessen price escalation • Dumping
Leasing in International Markets • Opens the door to a large segment of nominally financed foreign firms that can be sold on a lease option but might be unable to buy for cash • Can ease the problems of selling new, experimental equipment because less risk is involved for the users • Helps guarantee better maintenance and service on overseas equipment • Helps to sell other companies in that country • Revenue tends to be more stable over a period of time than direct sales would be
Countertrade as a Pricing Tool • Why purchasers impose countertrade: • To preserve hard currency • To improve balance of trade • To gain access to new markets • To upgrade manufacturing capabilities • To maintain prices of export goods • To force reinvestment of proceeds from weapons deals
Countertrade as a Pricing Tool (continued) • Types of countertrade • Barter • Compensation deals • Counter-purchase or offset trade • Product buyback agreement
Countertrade as a Pricing Tool (continued) • Problems of countertrading • Determining the value of and potential demand for the goods offered • Barter houses • The Internet and countertrading • Electronic trade dollars • Universal Currency/IRTA • Proactive countertrade strategy • Included as part of an overall market strategy • Effective for exchange-poor countries
Transfer Pricing Strategy • Benefits: • Lowering duty costs • Reducing income taxes in high-tax countries • Facilitating dividend repatriation when dividend repatriation is curtailed by government policy • Arrangements for pricing goods for intra-company transfer: • Sales at the local manufacturing cost plus a standard markup • Sales at the cost of the most efficient producer in the company plus a standard markup • Sales at negotiated prices • Arm’s-length sales using the same prices as quoted to independent customers
Price Quotations • May include specific elements affecting the price: • Credit • Sales terms • Transportation • Currency • Type of documentation required • Should define quantity and quality
Administered Pricing • Cartels • Exists when various companies producing similar products or services work together to control markets for the types of goods and services they produce • Example: OPEC • Government-influenced pricing • Establish margins • Set prices and floors or ceilings • Restrict price changes • Compete in the market • Grant subsidies • Act as a purchasing monopoly or selling monopoly