Welcome to Forensics Mr. Rizzo
What is forensics Science? • Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. • The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. • The use of science and technology to provide evidence.
When is forensics Science used? • ? • To solve any problem whether criminal or historical in nature.
What is Evidence? • Must be relevant to the case at hand. • Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue. • Probative evidence:tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation
Forensic Evidence? • IT IS NOT CSI…. • Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.
The Powers of Observation Video: Know your brain awareness test Test your Brain!
Answering Histories Conundrums St. Valentines Day massacre Kurt Cobain Salem witch trials
What we know • Seven men are killed in a garage on the North side of Chicago. • Ordered by Al Capone (in Miami at the time) • Planned by members of the Circus gang • Were sent to warehouse to kill George "Bugs“ Moran • Rival who also has possession of the lucrative North side booze business and as well as other rackets. • Moran not present
February 14th,1929. Victims and facts • 6 Moran gangsters,1 Optometrist • A dog tied to a truck. • Multiple tire tracks leaving the area • But it was a garage • The killers weapons: • two Thompson submachine guns • one with a 20 round clip • one with a 50 round drum • Two shotguns are also part of the arsenal.
First carload of killers arrive at the back of 2122 North Clark obtain access to the garage. • Once inside they line up the Moran gang and relieve them of their weapons. • One of the fake cops then goes to the front and lets in the other set of non uniformed killers to unleash their hail of .45 bullets into the Northside boys.
Reenactments Video reenactment Correct? http://www.imdb.com/video/hulu/vi1237843993/
Sgt. Thomas J. Loftus • Loftus knew the Gusenbergs real well. • Loftus arrived first at the scene and questioned Frank Gusenberg who was still alive in the garage. • Loftus asked "Do you know me Frank?' • Frank replied 'Yes, you are Tom Loftus' • Loftus then asks 'Who did it or what happened?' • Frank replies 'I won't talk' • The officer then replies 'You are in bad shape' • Frank says 'For God's sake get me to a hospital.' • Loftus tells Frank 'Pete is here too' • He said 'Yes' Loftus asks Frank if they were lined up against the wall, to this Frank answers again 'I won't talk.' Once transferred to Alexian Brothers Hospital, • Loftus asks Gusenberg another time and he refuses • Loftus asked Frank if three of the men wore police uniforms. • To this Frank answers 'Yes' and then dies.
Kurt Cobain Facts about Kurt Cobain's death • Found April 8th 1994 dead in his home in Seattle Washington on the second story of his garage (green house) • Barricaded in • Shotgun wound to the head. • face was still intact contrary to populure belief • 3 times the lethal dose of heroin in his blood stream • no finger prints on the gun, suicide note, or shell casing [as if they had bin wiped clean]
Excerpt from the Follow Up Report • Obvious trauma to his head. There is a Remington m-11 20 gauge shotgun between the victim’s legs with the barrel pointed towards his head and his left hand wrapped around the barrel. The shotgun is inverted with the trigger and magazine trap door pointing up. The barrel end is just above his beltline. There is a sent 20 gauge shell casing on top of a brown corduroy jacket which is on top of a beige nylon shotgun case. These are just to the left of the victim and under one of the stainless steel garden trays.
Inside the Greenhouse • The stool police claim Kurt used to "barricade" himself in the room • greenhouse lock used to back up the story that Kurt "barricaded" himself in the Greenhouse
Remington m-11 20 gauge shotgun • The inverted shotgun distinguishing the orientation that relates to the scene diagram
Hieronymus Bosch1450-1516 an eccentric Dutch painter of religious visions who dealt in particular with the torments of hell.
St. Christopher Carrying the Christ Child through a Sinful World,Bosch, c1520
Hieronymus BoschMadman or Medical Analyst • So we dig deeper and find that amputated limbs were saved during Bosch's time so they might be rejoined to their owners at the last judgment. • Amputation is a gangrenous prevention • The odd vegetable creature is painted in the shape of a mandrake root. Mandrake was the herb used to stanch the feverish pains of St. Anthony's Fire. • The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.
As a Forensic Scientist what are some questions you would ask? • Does he have any diagnosis medical or psychological conditions? • Apocalyptic personality? • What was also happening at that time?
Historians Know: What can be going on at that time? • St. Anthony's Fire was rampant. • fiery pain, hallucinations, disorientation, muscle cramps, convulsions, miscarriages, *gangrene • Today we know that St. Anthony's Fire was caused by a form of Rye/grain fungus called ergot.
St. Anthony’s Fire: Ergot *Ergot of rye is produced by a lower fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that grows parasitically on rye, other grains and wild grasses.
Structural Analysis ergotamine Lysergic Acid
Serotonin Blocker? Serotonin (on the left) and Lysergic Acid ( on the right) *Serotonin is known to control mood, emotion, sleep and appetite
Structural Analysis Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Lysergic Acid (LSD)
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide(LSD) • LSD is one of the most powerful known hallucinogenic drugs. • It was invented in 1938, derived from mushrooms. • SO WHO CARES?
Hieronymus BoschMadman or Medical Analyst • Bosch's Paintings actually documented beliefs and medical procedures used to assist with St. Anthony’s Fire. • Amputation is a gangrenous prevention • odd vegetable creatures= mandrake root • The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.
Ergot in history • Furthermore, since ergot baked in bread dough forms LSD, the disease also led to terrifying hallucinations • Indeed there is the belief that the Salem witch-hangings that went on in Salem, Massachusetts (1692) occurred during an outbreak of rye ergot.
Salem Witch trials(June -September of 1692) • 19 men and women were convicted of witchcraft and hung • 100s of others faced accusations of witchcraft. • Dozens languished in jails. • 1 man was pressed to death under heavy stones
Salem witch trials (1692) According to historian Mary Matossian in her book Poisons of the Past, she noted symptoms of the people to be sensations of: • Prickling or ants crawling on the skin • Distortions of the face • Paralysis • Hallucinations • Convulsive violent seizures • Dementia • All these symptoms were consistent with those suffering from ergotism.
Forensics • from L. forensis "of a forum, place of assembly," from forum. • Used in sense of "pertaining to legal trials," as in forensic medicine (1845).
I. Introduction What is forensics Science? • Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. • The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. • The use of science and technology to provide evidence.
Is Forensics a Sciences? • Biology • Physiology, Odontology, Pathology • Chemistry • Spectrophotometry, Thin layer Chromatography • Physics • Friction, Ballistics, trajectory and motion • Geology • Archeology, Mineralogy
Evidence? • Must be relevant to the case at hand • Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue • Probative evidence:tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation
History Of Detection • 1879 Alphonse Bertillon: father of Criminal Identification developed Anthropometry • portrait parle • 1892 Francis Galton: the first finger printer • 1910 Edmond Locard: one of the first site based forensic labs • Locard’s Exchange Principle • 1932, the FBI under J. Edger Hoover organized a national laboratory that aimed to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the country. • *at no expense