DISTRICT PLANNING Pro. R. Suryanarayana ReddyCentre Head, CDP&A AMR - APARD Hyderabad
Prelude • Planning fundamentals • Decentralised Planning • Institutional Mechanism for planning • PRIs and Planning • District Planning Methodolgy • Panchayat Level Planning • Mandal Level Planning • Urban Planning • Role of DPC • Issues in Decentralised Planning
Some basic questions • What is a Plan? • Why do we need a plan? • When do we need a plan? • Objectives of Planning • Success and Failures of Centralised Planning • Decentralised Planning
Article 243 G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.- Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to- (a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; (b)the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.
Article 243 ZD-DPC “There shall be constituted in every State at the district level a District Planning Committee to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole.” • The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to - • the composition of the District Planning Committees • the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled
District Planning The object of district planning is to arrive at an integrated, participatory coordinated idea of development of a local area Each Panchayat at any level or Municipality is treated as a planning unit and the ‘district plan’ is built up through consolidation and integration of these plans A Plan(Yojana)would be a composite whole which consists of several programmes (karyakrams)in a mutual interdependent way
District/ Mandal/GP Planning
Stock taking • Baseline Survey • Secondary data • Data Collation • Data Analysis • Data Synthesis • Vision Building
SWOT • Strengths • Weakness • Opportunities • Threats
Stock Taking -Human Development • UN HDI • INDIA HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2001 • AP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007
Children in India-Present Scenario UNICEF Report 2008 • Every 3 seconds, One child is dying • 2.1 million children die annually before reaching 5th birthday • India accounts for 21% of the world’s under 5 child deaths • India Accounts for 8.3% of the worlds low weight deaths • 1/3 of the world’s neonatal (0-28 days period) deaths occur in India • Low Birth weight infants accounts for 43% of the world’s infants • 35 % of the Worlds under weight children below 5 years age live in India
Some Important Socio Economic Indicators-South India Source: Compilation Book on Socio Economic Indicators, Dir.Econ.&Stat, Govt.A.P,Hyd, 2007
Identification of Lead Sectors • Agriculture and Allied Sector • Mineral Processing • Handicrafts • Services • Industry • Tourism • Potentially Linked Credit Plans of NABARD
VISION Vivid idealized description of a desired outcome that inspires, energizes and helps you create a mental picture of your target • A vision is not a project report or a plan target. It is an articulation of the desired end results in broader terms. --A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
My Dream Village …………every village’s first concern will be to grow its own food crops and cotton for its cloth. It should have a reserve for its cattle, recreation and playground for adults and children. The village will maintain a village theatre, school and public hall. It will have its own waterworks, ensuring clean water supply. Education will be compulsory up to the final basic course. As far as possible every activity will be conducted on the cooperative basis.
Space Vision for India 1970 "India with her mighty scientific knowledge and power house of young, should build her own huge rocket systems (satellite launch vehicles) and also build her own communication, remote sensing and meteorological spacecraft and launch from her own soil to enrich the Indian life in satellite communication, remote sensing and meteorology."
Sam’s Agenda • “If the global standards meet our needs, we will adopt them, if not then we will create our own standards.We have to crash the transaction costs substantially. We want to do open source and open standards as much as possible and sit Indian languages on top of that. Broadband connectivity needs to be expanded to the 250,000 panchayats in the country, which are the backbone of local governance When you go to 250,000 panchayats, they have to have trained people, systems etc.,. Sam Pitroda, Advisor to the P.M. On Public Information Infrastructure & Innovations
Setting Goals is an important step in Planning exercise • Where do we (District, Mandal, GP) want to be in next five years; ten years; twenty years ? • What the rate of literacy in our District / Mandal / GP will be ? • b) What will be the number of our children in Schools ? • c) All deliveries will be in institutions or by trained workers ? • d) Where will our MMR stands ?
e) Where will our Infant Mortality Rate stands ? • f) All unemployed will get employment ? • 1) Wage earning or self employment. • 2) All the unemployed will be trained in various skills • g) All people will have access to potable Drinking Water ? • h) All the houses have drainage facility ? • All the habitations have road connectivity ? • j) Can we have food security for all, including destitute? • k) Can we establish rural business hubs ? • l) All houses have electricity ?
We may use the Millennium Development Goals as a basis191 United Nations member states pledged in 2000 to meet the following eight goals by 2015:
Millennium Development Goals • Manishankar on MDGs • Salil Shetty on MDGs
IDENTIFY YOUR FELT NEEDS • Safe drinking water • Nutrition for children & mothers • Playground & teachers • Dispensary/Hospital with building, equipment, medicines & doctors • Loan for the self employed • Training in trades/vocations • Roads, electricity, markets • If none of these- you could have an alternative set of needs in your district!
PRIORITISATION OF FELT NEEDS • What we will take up first ? What is the most urgent ? • What is that helps the poor in the village ? • What is that helps the women & children in the village ? • What will benefit the most number of people ? • If you have to make a choice, won’t you give priority to the work that helps the poorest and the weakest in the village ?
What are the available resources? • People • Know How • Sramdan • Natural resources • Man made assets • Funds • Own funds • Devolved funds • Funds under various schemes • Contribution from the public / NRIs etc.
Natural resources are equally important… • What is the nature of the land in the district? How much is under agriculture? How much is irrigated? How much is under forest? Mining? • What is the state of agriculture? Major crops? Scope for horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, fuel plantation? • What is the extent of availability of water? How much is being used for drinking water, agriculture, industry and other purposes? • How do we protect and sustain the natural resources?
Manmade resources come next .. • What is the government infrastructure available? • What are the private assets available? • You could make a checklist - Tanks, handpumps, schools, dispensaries, hospitals, roads, drains, veterinary dispensaries, cottage- small-scale industry, ITI, godowns, cold storages etc. • It is a good idea to complete asset registers for all Panchayats and departments! • Can you mark this on a district map? You can use the NIC to help out.
And last but not the least – the financial resources • What are the programmes in operation in your district and how much money is available under each? • Central Plan funds, • State plan funds, • Central finance Commission grants, • State finance commission grants, • Your own resources, through taxes and user charges. • Do not forget salaries and maintenance expenditure --- they are equally important.
You must invariably find out how much money is available under the following schemes, • National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme, • National Rural Health Mission • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, • Midday Meal Scheme, • Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana • Integrated Child Development Scheme • Indira Awas Yojana • Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana • Backward Regions Grant Fund • Central Finance Commission Grants • State Finance Commission Grants
5th Sutra • Matching the needs with resources • Tied • Partially Tied • Untied