Old Testament Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations © John Stevenson, 2012
English Old Testament Pentateuch Historical Books Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther Poetic Books Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Prophetic Books Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Old Testament History 2000 - 1500 1500 - 1000 1000 - 500 Exodus and Sinai Judges Kings of Israel and Judah Return Period of the Patriarchs Torah Historical Books Poetic Books Prophetic Books
What is a Prophet? • They functioned as Preachers • They functioned as Predictors • Prophet versus Priest
The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD saying, 2 “Arise and go down to the potter’s house, and there I shall announce My words to you.”3 Then I went down to the potter's house, and there he was, making something on the wheel. Jeremiah 18:1-3
But the vessel that he was making of clay was spoiled in the hand of the potter; so he remade it into another vessel, as it pleased the potter to make. Jeremiah 18:4
Then the word of the LORD came to me saying, 6 “Can I not, O house of Israel, deal with you as this potter does?” declares the LORD. “Behold, like the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israel.” Jeremiah 18:5-6
At one moment I might speak concerning a nation or concerning a kingdom to uproot, to pull down, or to destroy it; 8 if that nation against which I have spoken turns from its evil, I will relent concerning the calamity I planned to bring on it. Jeremiah 18:7-8
Or at another moment I might speak concerning a nation or concern-ing a kingdom to build up or to plant it; 10 if it does evil in My sight by not obeying My voice, then I will think better of the good with which I had promised to bless it. Jeremiah 18:9-10
Contingency Fulfillment Prediction If they turn from their evil I will relent of the calamity If I speak concerning a nation to destroy it If I speak concerning a nation to plant it If they do evil and do not obey I will think better of the good
The Uncertainty Principle • 2 Samuel 12:22. “…for I said, ‘Who knows, the LORD may be gracious to me, that the child may live.’” • Jonah 3:9. “Who knows, God may turn and relent and withdraw His burning anger so that we will not perish.” • Joel 2:14. Who knows whether He will not turn and relent and leave a blessing behind Him
High & Low Determination • Conditional Predictions: “If… then” clauses • Unqualified Predictions • Confirmed Predictions • Sworn Predictions
“Come now, and let us reason together,”Says the LORD, “Though your sins are as scarlet,They will be as white as snow;Though they are red like crimson,They will be like wool.” (Isaiah 1:18) Conditional Predictions
“If you consent and obey, You will eat the best of the land; 20 But if you refuse and rebel, You will be devoured by the sword.” Truly, the mouth of the LORD has spoken. (Isaiah 1:18-20). Conditional Predictions
Then Jonah began to go through the city one day’s walk; and he cried out and said, “Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown.” (Jonah 3:4). Unqualified Predictions
Then the LORD answered me and said, “Record the vision And inscribe it on tablets, That the one who reads it may run.” (Habakkuk 2:2). Confirmed Predictions
“For the vision is yet for the appointed time; It hastens toward the goal and it will not fail. Though it tarries, wait for it; For it will certainly come, it will not delay. (Habakkuk 2:3). Confirmed Predictions
“Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other. 23 I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance.” (Isaiah 45:22-23). Sworn Predictions
Isaiah The Old Testament Gospel
The Bible Isaiah Old Testament: 39 Books New Testament: 27 Books Judgment: 39 Chapters Comfort: 27 Chapters Total Books: 66 Books Total: 66 Chapters
God’s Government God’s Grace A throne (6:1) A lamb (53:6) Overview of Isaiah Chapters 1-35 Chapters 36-39 Chapters 40-66 Historical Interlude Glory in the Future The Judgment of God The Comfort of God Judgments in the Present Messiah the Judge Messiah the Servant
Isaiah 1 A Microcosm of the Entire Book of Isaiah
Isaiah 1:2-3 2 Listen, O heavens, and hear, O earth; For the LORD speaks, “Sons I have reared and brought up, But they have revolted against Me. 3 An ox knows its owner, And a donkey its master's manger, But Israel does not know, My people do not understand.”
Isaiah 1:4 Literally “Seed of Evil Ones.” Alas, sinful nation, People weighed down with iniquity, Offspring of evildoers, Sons who act corruptly! They have abandoned the Lord, They have despised the Holy One of Israel, They have turned away from Him.
Isaiah 1:10 Hear the word of the LORD, You rulers of Sodom; Give ear to the instruction of our God, You people of Gomorrah.
Isaiah 1:11 "What are your multiplied sacrifices to Me?” says the LORD. "I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams, And the fat of fed cattle. And I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls, lambs, or goats.
Isaiah 1:21 How the faithful city has become a harlot, She who was full of justice! Righteousness once lodged in her, But now murderers.
Isaiah 1:26-27 26 Then I will restore your judges as at the first, And your counselors as at the beginning; After that you will be called the city of righteousness, A faithful city." 27 Zion will be redeemed with justice And her repentant ones with righteousness.
Isaiah 6:1 In the year of King Uzziah’s death, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple.
Isaiah 6:2-4 Seraphim stood above Him, each having six wings; with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. 3 And one called out to another and said, “Holy, Holy, Holy, is the LORD of hosts, The whole earth is full of His glory.” 4 And the foundations of the thresholds trembled at the voice of him who called out, while the temple was filling with smoke.
Isaiah 6:5 Then I said, “Woe is me, for I am ruined! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I live among a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.”
Isaiah 6:6-7 Then one of the seraphim flew to me, with a burning coal in his hand which he had taken from the altar with tongs. 7 And he touched my mouth with it and said, “Behold, this has touched your lips; and your iniquity is taken away, and your sin is forgiven.”
Isaiah 6:8 Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?” Then I said, “Here am I. Send me!”
Child Motif • Shear-jashub (Isaiah 7:3) • Immanu-el (Isaiah 7:14; 8:8) • Maher-shalal-hash-baz (Isaiah 8:3) • Isaiah’s children (Isaiah 8:18) • The Royal Child (Isaiah 9:6-7).
Now it came about in the days of Ahaz, the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up to Jerusalem to wage war against it, but could not conquer it. (Isaiah 7:1) Aram Israel Judah
Assyria Aram Israel Judah
When it was reported to the house of David, saying, “The Arameans have camped in Ephraim,” his heart and the hearts of his people shook as the trees of the forest shake with the wind. (Isaiah 7:2) Aram Israel Judah
Isaiah 7:3 Then the LORD said to Isaiah, “Go out now to meet Ahaz, you and your son Shear-jashub, at the end of the conduit of the upper pool, on the highway to the fuller’s field,
Isaiah 7:4 “…and say to him, ‘Take care and be calm, have no fear and do not be fainthearted because of these two stubs of smoldering firebrands, on account of the fierce anger of Rezin and Aram and the son of Remaliah.’”
Isaiah 7:5-7 Because Aram, with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, has planned evil against you, saying, 6 “Let us go up against Judah and terrorize it, and make for ourselves a breach in its walls and set up the son of Tabeel as king in the midst of it,” 7 thus says the Lord GOD: “It shall not stand nor shall it come to pass.”
For the head of Aram is Damascus and the head of Damascus is Rezin (now within another 65 years Ephraim will be shattered, so that it is no longer a people)… (Isaiah 7:8) Aram Israel Judah
Isaiah 7:10-12 Then the LORD spoke again to Ahaz, saying, 11 “Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; make it deep as Sheol or high as heaven.” 12 But Ahaz said, “I will not ask, nor will I test the LORD!”
Isaiah 7:13 Then he said, “Listen now, O house of David! Is it too slight a thing for you to try the patience of men, that you will try the patience of my God as well?
Isaiah 7:14-16 Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel. 15 He will eat curds and honey at the time He knows enough to refuse evil and choose good. 16 For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread will be forsaken.
Near & Far Fulfillments Far Events Near Events