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Astronomical Tools (Chapter 6: Telescopes)

Astronomical Tools (Chapter 6: Telescopes)

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Astronomical Tools (Chapter 6: Telescopes)

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  1. Astronomical Tools(Chapter 6: Telescopes) Astronomy 2014

  2. Key Vocabulary Components of a Telescope: • Eyepiece • Objective Lens • Focus • Filter • Angular Resolution • Light Collecting Area • Spectral Resolution • Light Pollution • Turbulence • Interferometry • Radio Telescope • Reflecting Telescope • Refracting Telescope • Light Curve Graph

  3. Basic Tools Used in Astronomy • Reflecting Telescopes • Refracting Telescopes • Astrophotography

  4. Telescopes • Device designed to collect as much light as possible from some distant source and deliver it to a detector for detailed study. • Function very similarly to human eyes • Light is intercepted, then focused by a lens to create an image • Two most important properties: • Light Collecting AreaHow much light a telescope can collect at one time • Angular ResolutionSmallest angular over which two dots appear distinct

  5. Early History of the Telescope • 1609: Galileo created the first tool of modern astronomy by fitting his glass lenses into wooden tubes to create a refracting telescope • 1672: Sir Isaac Newton created the reflecting telescope by using two polished metal mirrors in place of the glass lens

  6. Astronomical/Telescopic Observations • Imaging • Obtaining photographs/images of astronomical objects • Includes light from across all wavelengths of EM Spectrum • Spectroscopy • Process of obtaining and studying a spectra of light • Time Monitoring • Tracking of how an object changes over time (differences in brightness) • Displayed as light curve graphs

  7. Refracting Telescopes • Light is collected by the objective lens. • Light is brought to a focus; casts an image at point f. • This is then magnified by an eyepiece for viewing.

  8. Reflecting Telescopes • Light passes down the open tube and reflects off the concave mirror. • The shape of this mirror brings light to a focus. • Before the reflected light comes to a focus it is intercepted by a flat mirror suspended in the middle of the tube and sent at right angles out the side of the tube. • The image is then magnified by an eyepiece for viewing.

  9. Astrophotography • Specialized type of photography that entails recording images of astronomical objects and large areas of the night sky • The first photograph of an astronomical object (the moon) was taken in 1840 • not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography

  10. Advanced Tools Used in Astronomy • Spectrometers • Radio Telescopes • Space Telescopes • Hubble • James Webb Space Observatory • Satellites • Rovers • Space Probes

  11. Radio Telescopes • Used to study radio waves from objects in space • Wavelength of 1 millimeter to 10 meters • Key Components: • large radio antenna • horseshoe-shaped mount supporting a large, metal curved dish that collects signals and reflects them to the focus • Radiometer/receiver detects the signals and channels them to a computer • Can operate in all weather conditions because weather conditions do not stop radio waves.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope • Named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble • Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images • 7.9 feet wide telescope opening • Carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation • Instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectra

  13. James Webb Space Telescope • Also known as Next Generation Space Telescope • A planned space telescope for observations in the infrared • Planned for launch October 2018 • Planned successor to the Hubble Space Telescope • In planning since 1996, the project represents an international collaboration of about 17 countries led by NASA

  14. Astronomical Satellites • Used to obtain data about the earth's magnetic field, solar wind, detect EM radiation from outer space • Can be used to detect the existence of various objects, ranging from stars and galaxies to quasars, invisible gas clouds, black holes and the remains of dead stars

  15. Rovers • Space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body • Operation: • Transport members of a human spaceflight crew (Lunar missions) • Fully autonomous robots (Mars rovers)

  16. Space Probes • Unmanned spacecraft that travels through space to collect information and send back data • Used to study Earth, planets, stars, galaxies, or measure properties of space with telescopes or other instruments • Most famous space probe is Voyager 1 • Launched in 1977 • Has travelled further than any other man-made object • Sent to study Jupiter and Saturn, then to continue to the edge of our solar system • Currently in interstellar space (about 11 billion miles away)

  17. Interferometry • Technique used to improve the resolution of radio maps; useful because it accounts for errors caused by light pollution and turbulence of Earth’s atmosphere • Process: Several telescopes observe the object at the same time, and a computer analyzes how the signals differ from each other and correct the difference • Interferometer: collection of two or more telescopes working together as a team, observing the same object at the same time and at the same wavelength

  18. Astronomy Feb 4, 2014 Intro to Chapter 6 In 2-3 complete sentences, state whether or not you believe it is important for organizations such as NASA to continue to receive funding to advance space exploration technology.

  19. Astronomy Feb 5, 2014 Basic Astro. Tools • How do reflecting telescopes differ from refracting telescopes? • What are the three basic categories of telescopic/astronomical observations? • In at least one complete sentence, speculate on the effect that light pollution has on an astronomer’s ability to make observations.

  20. Astronomy Feb 6 2014 Light Curves • How does a supernova appear on a light curve line graph? • How does a binary star system appear on a light curve line graph? • What would a regular, constantly emitting star (like our Sun) look like on a light curve over a week period?

  21. Spectrometer • Hubble Telescope • Neutrino Detector • Radio Telescope • SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) • Spitzer Space Telescope • LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) • Refracting Telescope • Reflecting Telescope • Fermi Gamma-Ray Observatory • Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope • Chandra X-Ray Observatory • Opportunity and Spirit Mars Rovers • Gran Telescopio Canarias • Curiosity Mars Rover • Cassini-Huygens Space Probe • Aquarius Radiometer • Compton Gamma Ray Observatory • Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite • Galileo Space Probe • Herschel Space Observatory • INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) • James Webb Space Telescope • STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) • Venera 7 Space Probe • Pioneer 10 Space Probe • New Horizons Interstellar Probe • Sputnik Satellite • Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle • Astrophotography