Adobe Photoshop Elements and Design
5 Chapter Introducing Adobe Photoshop Add Photographs to Publications • Photographs provide visual interest and information for a variety of publications and products, including magazines, newspapers, catalogs. • Photographs placed in documents should follow the PARC design principles: • Proximity: Related items should be grouped close together. This provides the viewer with a visual cue that this items are similar and should be treated as a group. • Alignment: Every visual element on a page should have some kind of connection to at least one other element. Nothing should be positioned haphazardly. • Repetition: Common elements, such as colors, graphics, layout styles, and so on, should be repeated to give a consistent look and feel to a page. • Contrast: The idea of contrast is to make dis-similar elements very different. Contrast is one of the most powerful visual design tools.
Chapter Introducing Adobe Photoshop
Foundations Explore Raster Graphics raster graphics Digital images made up of pixels. pixel The smallest square of color in an image. scalable The ability to be resized without any loss of image clarity. resolution Image clarity. • Raster Graphics • Raster graphics are digital images made up of thousands of tiny squares called pixels. What Is Resolution? • Vector images are scalable, meaning they can be resized without any loss of image clarity, or resolution.
Foundations Explore Raster Graphics pixelated The visibility of individual pixels in an image. file name extension The letters displayed after a file name. • Resizing Raster Images • Raster images are not scalable. When they are enlarged, the images look either blurry or pixelated. What are Raster File Formats? • The table on page 200 lists file formats for raster images. The file name extension shows the file’s format. • What is a Pixel? • Apixelis a picture element, the smallest square of color in an image.
Explore Raster Graphics Assessment Which of the following images has the highest resolution? A. 72 dpi B. 400 dpi C. 300 dpi D. 150 dpi Answer: B Explanation: The image with the greatest dpi has the highest resolution.
Toolbox The Photoshop Interface palette A feature of Photoshop that displays a variety of tools for particular actions. • Workspace • The workspace is the area that will be printed when the work is published. Images are placed on the workspace. Palettes • A palette displays a variety of tools for particular actions, such as adding color or working with layers. Options bar • The Options bar displays different options depending upon the tool being applied.
The Photoshop Interface Assessment How do you move the workspace in Photoshop? A. by clicking and dragging the Title bar B. by clicking and dragging the menu bar C.by clicking and dragging the Options bar D. by clicking and dragging the palette Answer: B Explanation: Clicking and dragging the Title bar will move the workspace in Photoshop.
Select Objects marquee A dotted line that shows the area that is selected. polygon A multisided geometric figure. anchor point The beginning of a new line segment. • Selection Tools • Marquee tools allow a user to select elliptical, rectangular, and other standard shapes in an object. • Lasso tools are used to select irregular or unusual shapes such as polygons. • Anchor points are created by clicking on a selection tool.
Add Layers opaque The inability to see through layer. opacity The level of transparency of a layer. blending modes A tool that controls the way pixels on one layer blend with pixels in underlying layers. hue The color of an image. saturation The intensity of the color of an image. • Layers • in the Layers palette, layers can be rearranged in any order. • Some layers are opaque. The greater the opacity of a layer, the greater its transparency. Apply Blending Modes • Blending modes control the way the pixels on one layer blend with the pixels in underlying layers Hue and Saturation • Using the Hue and Saturation command, a user can change the hue and saturation of an image.
Apply a Mask mask A feature that hides specific areas of an image. • Working with Layers • Layers can be edited independently of each other. • Layers can also be masked. A mask is a hides specific areas of an image.
Retouch a Photo retouch To fix a photograph. clone To copy a range of pixels and paste the pixels into another location. histogram A graph that shows the number of pixels for each color and tone in an image. • Apply the Clone Stamp Tool • Using the Clone Stamp tool is an effective way to retouch a photograph. To clone is to copy a range of pixels and paste the pixels into another location. • Adjust Color • In Photoshop, a user can change the histogram settings to correct color in a photograph.
Create a Photo Montage highlight An area where light is reflected off a surface. montage The combination of separate images to create a new image. vignette A border that fades into the background. flatten To merge all layers into one. • Highlight • When creating an illustration, details like highlights and shadows make the picture more realistic. • Montage • In a montage, separate images combine to create a new image. • A montage sometimes has a vignette, or a border that fades into the background. • To flatten is to merge all layers of an image into one layer.
Create Effects and Images with Filters filter A tool that can create effects such as distortions, texture, blurs, and others. (pg. 234) • Filters • Many interesting images can be created by using filters. • Many of Photoshop’s filters can be previewed in the Filter Gallery.
Take a Digital Photograph megapixel A unit that contains over one million pixels. optical zoom A camera feature that uses lenses to magnify the image. single lens reflex A type of camera that allows an accurate view of an image through the lens. • Megapixels • A megapixel is a unit that contains over one million pixels. • The higher the number of megapixels, the sharper the photograph. Optical Zoom • Professional cameras use an optical zoom, which uses lenses inside the camera to magnify the subject without losing image quality. Single Lens Reflex • In single lens reflex cameras, a photographer can look through the viewfinder and see the exact image that will be captured by the camera.
Adobe File Formats Different applications (programs) store data in different formats. Applications support some file formats and not others. Open…, Save…, Save as…, Import…, Export…, Place... File formats appear as a (usually) 3 letter suffix or “extension” after the name of the file, e.g., .psd, .doc, .jpg, .pct, .tif, .gif, .ppt, etc. MacIntosh does not require the file extension after the name, but Windows does. On the Mac choose “append file extension” for easier communication across platforms. format Style of data storage
Adobe File Formats Save Save As. . . Save a Copy. . . Save as Template. . . Save for Web. . . Adobe Photoshop can save files in the following basic formats: .ai — Adobe Illustrator, its “native” format .pdf — Adobe Portable Document Format .ait — Adobe Illustrator Template .eps — Illustrator Encapsulated PostScript .svg — Scalable Vector Graphics .svgz — SVG compressed As well as a number of Web compatible formats (.gif, .jpeg, .png-8, .png-24, .swf, .svg., .wbmp)
TIFF • Tagged Image File Format • Widely used cross platform file format also designed for printing. • A bitmap image format. • TIFF supports lossless LZW compression which also makes it a good archive format for Photoshop documents. LZW Compression An algorithm used to remove data from an image and decrease its size
GIF • Graphics Interchange Format • Industry standard graphic format for on-screen viewing through the Internet and Web. Not meant to be used for printing. • The best format for all images except scanned photographic images (use JPEG for these). • GIF supportslosslessLZW compression.
JPEG • Joint Photographic Experts Group • Preferred format for scanned photographic imagesfor use over the internet or Web. Not meant for printing. • Not good for images with a lot of solid color, vector drawings, type, or line art or images with “Web-safe” colors. • JPEG compression is losses image integrity! Save and archive the original before converting to JPEG.