Chinese Universities: Present and FutureProfessor GU BinglinPresident of Tsinghua UniversityJune 24, 2004
The history of civilization in China can be dated back to thousands of years ago.However, the history of Chinese universities in a modern sense is only slightly longer than a hundred years.
109 years ago, with the approval of Emperor Guangxu, Peiyang PublicSchool was established in Tianjin • It made the city the birthplace of Chinese higher education and the first university in modern China.
The Memorial Pavilion and Stele in the Peiyang Campus of Tianjin University The Diploma No.1 was authorized by the Emperor and granted to Mr. WANG Chonghui
After the establishment of Peiyang University • Nanyang Public School (1896, renamed as Shanghai Jiaotong University) • Qiu-shi Academy • (1897, renamed as Zhejiang University) • Metropolitan University (1898, renamed as Peking University) • Fudan University (1905) • Tsinghua University (1911)
Chinese universities have : • established an educational scheme with Chinese characteristics • consistent with Chinese tradition and actual situations • finally stepped onto the right track leading to the making of modern universities.
Present of Chinese Higher EducationExpansion in Size and Increase in Quantity • Elevation in Rank and Leap in Quality • Reform and Development of Chinese Higher Education Reform of Chinese Higher Education • Development of Chinese Higher Education • Prospects of Chinese Higher Education
Expansion in size and increase in quantity Higher Education Institutions
Number of at-school undergraduates in Chinese higher institutions
Number of yearly recruited undergraduates in institutions of higher learning
Post-graduate education Recruitment in 2004 (estimated): 330,000
Constitution of the teaching staff in colleges and universities Teachers in colleges and universities: 16,000 in Year 1949 532,000 in Year 2001 • Professors: 50,700 • Associate Professors: 161,000 • Age: under 30 – • professors: 48 • associate professors: 617 • Age of most of the associate professors: 36 ~ 45
Research papers and achievements of scientific and technology • Scientific Monographs: 3,228 (1985) 5,534 (2001) • Papers published in international academic journals:4,533 (1985) • Research Papers: 302,000 (2001) • Articles included in citation index: 14,800 in SCI (2001) 11,400 in EI (2001) 4,091 in ISTP (2001) • Scientific research achievements tested and appraised: 6,812 ( 1986, with 912 items of international level) 6 679 (2001) Patent permission: 448 ( 1986), • 1,850 (2001)
Reformation of the macro-management system of higher institutions and the institutional amalgamation • In the Past: • Universities were subordinate to different • ministries and committees • Divided into too narrow field (i.e. Railway • University) • Inconsistent with the human resource demand of • society and economy
Reformation of the macro-management system of higher institutions and the institutional amalgamation • Jiangxi University and Jiangxi Industrial University into Nanchang University in 1992 • Multi-disciplinary comprehensive universities by 1994: Sichuan (associated) University, Shanghai University, Yangzhou University Super-sized Universities at pesent: Zhejiang University, Jilin University and Suzhou University
Reformation of the Diversified Investment System • Major Problem: Lack of Investment • Solutions: financial allocation as the main part • increasing individual share of cost proportion • collecting educational taxes • developing university-owned enterprises • accepting community donation • raising funds • establishing education funds
Reformation of the Management System: Enrollment and Placement • Old management system: “unified enrollment, unified management and unified placement” • Since 1995: • Recruitment • -- charging tuition fees • -- a diversified supporting system: scholarships, loans, student aids, special subsidies and tuition waiver • Placement • -- two-way selection between graduates and the employers • -- students are encouraged to open their own business
Adjusting Disciplines, Reforming Teaching Contents and Curriculum Number of Disciplines
Adjusting Disciplines, Reforming Teaching Contents and Curriculum (cont.) • reforms on teaching and curriculum : • “Towards 21st Century: Reforms on Teaching and Curriculum Plan” Disciplines covered: humanities, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine, finance, law and foreign languages • Projects established: 221 projects and more than 900 sub-projects • People involved: more than 10,000 university presidents, academicians, professors, teachers, management staff and researchers • Time required: 3 to 5 years
Enlarging Enrollment • “Towards 21st Century: Education Advancement Plan” • proposing a goal of “popularizing higher education and driving up the net enrollment ratio to 15% before 2010.” • From 1999 to 2003, the number of students on campus totaled up to 19 million (including adult students) in 2003, • compared with 6.43 million in 1998; the gross enrollment • ratio jumped from 9% of 1998 to 17% of 2003, basically • accomplishing the goal of popularizing higher education .
Building World-Class Universities and Key High-Level Colleges • World-class universities become a must to realize the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education. • Tsinghua University as an Example: • comprehensive discipline layout; • Research-oriented style for college training, cultivating intellectuals with high quality and great innovation; • build an innovative system for science and technology, enhancing the capability innovation in science and technology; • to be people-oriented, building a high-qualified teaching team; • to strengthen the construction of infrastructure on campus, creating good campus environment.
Building World-Class Universities and Key High-Level Colleges (contd.) • Projects: • Project 211: 100 key universities and key disciplines • Project 985: Peking University • Tsinghua University • Fudan University Shanghai Jiao Tong University Zhejiang University • University of Science and Technology of China • Nanjing University • Xi’an Jiao Tong University • Harbin Institute of Technology
Private Higher Education • Up till July 2003, there are 167 independent private universities that can issue certificates or diplomas, 2 private adult universities, and 12 private universities that hold more than 10,000 students. • Distance Education • Education through direct mails • Education through TV and radio • Education through computer and digital multimedia technology • Up to 2002, Chinese modern distant education has opened 140 majors covering 10 disciplines, enrolling 1.373 million students.
Enhance the Society Service Function of Higher Education • University-owned Enterprises • University Science Park
Chinese high education has been • developing rapidly, healthily in an • overall, systemic and steady manner • providing plenty of graduates for • economic and social development
Prospects of Chinese Higher Education • Weaknesses: insufficient funding from government agencies and social organizations; unreasonable discipline categorization and structures; dissatisfaction in meeting the needs of economic development; lack of comprehensive, internationalized and high-qualified intellectuals; inadequate internationalization • Chinese higher education in the new era should get along with world higher education, improve itself and co-work internationally. It must strengthen the communication and cooperation with higher education of other countries, and contribute to the development of all mankind.