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Bearings. Rolling Contact Bearings – load is transferred through rolling elements such as balls, straight and tapered cylinders and spherical rollers. Journal (sleeve) Bearings – load is transferred through a thin film of lubricant (oil). Bearings. Rolling Contact Bearings

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## Bearings

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**Bearings**Rolling Contact Bearings– load is transferred through rolling elements such as balls, straight and tapered cylinders and spherical rollers. Journal (sleeve) Bearings– load is transferred through a thin film of lubricant (oil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearings**Rolling Contact Bearings Load is transferred through elements in rolling contact rather than sliding contact. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearings**Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Journal (Sleeve) Bearings**Thick-film lubrication (hydrodynamic), pressure distribution, and film thickness. hmin=minimum film thickness, c = radial clearance, e = eccentricity Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearing load – radial, thrust (axial) or both**Thrust load Radial load Radial load Design Considerations Bearings are selected from catalogs, before referring to catalogs you should know the followings: • Bearing life and reliability • Bearing speed (rpm) • Space limitation • Accuracy Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Roller bearings**• Cylindrical bearings • Needle bearings • Tapered bearings • Spherical bearings Rolling Contact Bearings • Ball bearings • Deep groove (Conrad) bearing • Filling notch ball bearing or maximum capacity bearing • Angular contact bearings (AC) • Thrust bearings • Linear bearings Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Ball Bearings**• Deep groove (Conrad) bearing • Load capacity is limited by the number of balls • Primarily designed to support radial loads, the thrust capacity is about 70% of radial load capacity Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Ball Bearings**• Filling notch or maximum capacity ball bearings Bearings have the same basic radial construction as Conrad type. However, a filling notch (loading groove) permits more balls to be used. Notch • Radial load capacity is 20 – 40% higher than Conrad type • Thrust load capacity drops to 20% (2 directions) of radial load capacity. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Ball Bearings**• Angular contact bearings (AC) The centerline of contact between the balls and the raceway is at an angle to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Extra support in the back Direction of thrust • Used for high radial and thrust load applications Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Straight cylindrical roller**Needle type Roller Bearings Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings, load is transmitted through line contact instead of point contact. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Roller Bearings**Tapered bearings Designed to withstand high radial loads, high thrust loads, and combined loads at moderate to high speeds. They can also withstand repeated shock loads. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**aa = effective bearing spread**Measure of the rigidity of the bearing mounting Tapered Bearings Indirect and Direct mounting Indirect mounting provides greater rigidity when pair of bearings is closely spaced: front wheel of a car, drums, sheaves,.. Indirect mounting Direct mounting provides greater rigidity when pair of bearings is not closely spaced: transmission, speed reducers, rollers,.. Direct mounting Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Roller Bearings**Spherical bearings Bearing design uses barrel shaped rollers. Spherical roller bearings combine very high radial load capacity with modest thrust load capacity and excellent tolerance to misalignment. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Thrust Bearings**Ball thrust bearing Roller thrust bearing Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Tapered Thrust Bearings**Roller Thrust Bearings Spherical Thrust Bearings Cylindrical Thrust Bearings Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Linear Bearings**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Spherical rod end**Roller bearing cam follower Bearings Flanged V-Grooved Load runners (idler-rollers) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearings**Airframe control bearings– designed to meet the specific needs of the airframe industry, meets military and national standards. Designed to carry heavy static load and will also handle oscillation or slow rotation. Track rollers, withstand heavy rolling loads. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Precision Bearings**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Precision Bearings – High rpm Applications**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Flange**Alternative method, inner ring is press fitted onto the shaft. Common mounting, inner ring held in position by nuts threaded onto the shaft. Two-bearing mounting Mounting Bearings Pillow Block Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Comparison of Ball Bearings**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearing Comparison**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Standart Dimensi bantalan gelinding a. AFBMA (Anti Friction**Bearing Manufacture Assosiation ) dengan 3 komite : - ABEC ( The anguler Bearing Engineers Comite)- RBEC ( The rolller Bearing Engineers comite)- BMEC ( The Ball Manufacturers engineers Comite)b.ANSI ( American National Standart Institute )c. ISO ( International Standart Organization)Dalam standart dimensi ini didasarkan pada diameter dalamnya ( Diameter Lubang )**Gb. Relative Proportion of Boundary Dimension series**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Keterangan :- Diameter luar (OD) disebut sebagai seri**diameter( Diameter Series) dengan aturan dari 8,9,0,1,2,3,4 dan angka 4 menunjukkan diameter luar paling besar dan 8 diamter luar paling kecil .- Lebar disebut sbg seri lebar ( Width series) dengan aturan 0,1,2,3,4 Contoh : AFBMA standart 10 BC 02 artinya :BC: single row radial contac bearing 10 : Diameter dalam ( 10 mm )02 : Dimension Series ( yaitu seri diameter luar 2 dan seri lebar 0.**Tabel Standart Dimension and Load Bearing of radial roll**bearing ( Co dan c ) ( Lb) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Tabel versi lain Standart Dimension and Load Bearing of**radial roll bearing ( Co dan c ) (Kg) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Tabel Standart Dimension and Load Bearing of radial roll**bearing ( Co dan c ) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Tabel Standart Dimension and Load Bearing of radial roll**bearing ( Co dan c ) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Tabel Standart Dimension and Load Bearing of radial roll**bearing ( Co dan c ) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Dari tabel diatas utk seri dimensi 2 dan radial roll bearing**utk dia.dalam 10 mm ( 0,3937 inc)didapat dia.luar adalah 30 mm (1,1811 inc) dan lebar 9 mm ( 0,3543 inc) dan kemampuan menerima beban statis (Co) = 300 lb dan beban dinamis (C) = 950 lb .GESEKAN PADA BANTALAN GELINDING Walau bantalan gelinding disebut sebagai bantalan anti gesekan ,tetapi karena adanya beban dan putaran maka akan terjadi peristiwa slip dan histeria ( Teori elastisitas ). Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Dengan demikian akan terjadi gesekan antara ring luar, bola**dan ring dalam . Besarnya koefisien gesek bisa dilihat tabel dibawah Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Akibat gesekan akan mengakibatkan kehilangan daya sebesar**Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Umur Bantalan ( Bearing Life )Umur bantalan adalah jumlah**perputaran yg dapat dicapai dari bantalan sebelum mengalami kerusakan atau kegagalan yg pertama .Umur bantalan berdasarkan kepercayaan ( Rating Life )dimaksudkan : sebagai umur yg dicapai dalam jumlah putaran berdasarkan kepercayaan (reliability) 90 % dan 10 % nya kegagalan Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Menentukan umur Bantalan Umur bantalan dengan reliability**90% dapat dihitung : Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Dimana :L10 = umur bantalan dalam jumlah perputaran C =**Beban Dinamis ( lb)P = Beban Ekivalen lbb = Konstante tergantung tipe bantalan = 3,0 utk type bantalan bola = 10/3 utk type bantalan roll Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Kalau umur bantalan ingin dinyatakan dalam satuan jam**menjadi :Dimana :n = Jumlah putaran ( rpm)L10h = Umur bantalan ( Jam kerja ) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Fatigue failure consists of a spalling or pitting of the**curved surfaces Spalling – crack initiates below the curved surface at the location of maximum shear stress, propagates to the surface causing surface damage. Bearing Life If a bearing is clean, properly lubricated and mounted and is operating at reasonable temp., failure is due to fatigue caused by repeated contact stresses (Hertzian stress) Failure criterion – spalling or pitting of an area of 0.01 in2, Timken company (tapered bearings) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**For ball bearings and spherical bearings:**Rating Life – defines the number of revolution or hours of operation, at constant speed, in such a way that of the bearings tested (from the same group) will complete or exceed before the first evidence of failure develops. This is known as life. L10 = 500 (hours) x 33.33 (rpm) x 60 = 106 = 1 million revolutions 90% For tapered bearings manufactured by Timken: L10 L10 = 3000 (hours) x 500 (rpm) x 60 = 90 x 106 = 90 million revolutions – constant radial load that a group of bearings can carry for L10 life. Basic Dynamic Load Rating, C Bearing Life Life– number of revolution or hours of operation, at constant speed, required for the failure criterion to develop. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Bearing Life**L10 = (C / F)a , a = 3 for ball bearings and a = 10/3 for roller bearings F = applied radial load Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Example**Select a deep groove ball bearing for a desired life of 5000 hours at 1725 rpm with 90% reliability. The bearing radial load is 400 lb. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**C10**C10 Two parameter Weibull distribution for tapered bearings Bearing Reliability If a machine is assembled with 4 bearings, each having a reliability of 90%, then the reliability of the system is (.9)4 = .65 = 65%. This points out the need to select bearings with higher than 90% reliability. The distribution of bearing failure can be best approximated by two and three parameter Weibull distribution. C10is the catalog basic dynamic load rating corresponding toLRhours of life at the speed ofnRrpm. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**For 90% reliability**Use 99% reliability, R = .99 = 23.7 kN Select a 35 mm bearing instead of 30 mm for 90% reliability Lnew D = LD / .22 = 5000 / .22 = 22,770 hours C10 = 14.3 kN 30 mm Bore deep groove bearing Example Select a deep groove ball bearing for a desired life of 5000 hours at 1725 rpm with 99% reliability. The bearing radial load is 400 lb. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Multiply design load by load factor.**Design Life Suggestions and Load Factor Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Equivalent Radial Load**Bearings are usually operated with some combination of radial and thrust load. Catalog ratings are based only on radial loads. Follow the guideline in catalogs to obtain the equivalent radial load. Mechanical Engineering Dept.**X = radial factor**Specified by bearing manufacturer Y = thrust factor V = rotational factor Equivalent Radial Load P = XVFr + YFa P = equivalent load Fr = applied radial load (constant) Fa = applied thrust load (constant) Mechanical Engineering Dept.**Equivalent Radial Load**Mechanical Engineering Dept.

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