The Ancient Greeks Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Early Greeks Section 2 Sparta and Athens Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks Section 4 The Age of Pericles Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
The Ancient Greeks Chapter Objectives • Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. • Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens. • Identify the causes and effects of Greek wars with Persia. • Describe Athens under the leadership of Pericles and reasons Athens declined.
The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the impact of geography on ancient Greece and the rise of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.
The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did. • The Minoans earned their living by building ships and trading. • Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region.
The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.) • Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. • The idea of citizenship developed in Greek city-states.
The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Crete (KREET) • Mycenae (my·SEE·nee) • Peloponnesus (PEH·luh·puh·NEE·suhs) Meeting People • Agamemnon (A·guh·MEHM·nahn)
The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • peninsula (puh·NIHN·suh·luh) • colony (KAH·luh·nee) • polis (PAH·luhs) • agora (A·guh·ruh) Reading Strategy Finding Details Draw a diagram like the one on page 116 of your textbook. In each oval write one detail about a polis.
The Early Greeks The Geography of Greece • Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula—a body of land with water on three sides. • The Ionian Sea is to the west of Greece, the Aegean Sea is to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea is to the south. • Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders, and farmers. (page 117)
The Early Greeks The Geography of Greece • Although Greece’s rocky soil made it difficult to farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes in the favorable climate. (page 117)
The Early Greeks How might a peninsula be affected by its surrounding water? Land might be limited, the climate might be positively or adversely affected, and occupations of the people might be ocean-related, such as sailing and fishing.
The Early Greeks The Minoans • The ruins of the Minoan civilization, the first civilization to arise in Greece, are on the island of Crete. • Artifacts at the palace at Knossos reveal the riches of the Minoan people, such as wine, oil, jewelry, and statues. • The Minoan people were traders, traveling by ship to trade with other countries. (page 118)
The Early Greeks The Minoans (cont.) • The Minoan civilizations collapsed around 1450 B.C., although historians disagree on the cause of the Minoan destruction. (page 118)
The Early Greeks How do historians know the Minoans were a wealthy people? Artifacts at the palace of Knossos included items only wealthy people would have, such as bathrooms.
The Early Greeks The First Greek Kingdoms • The first Greek kings were Mycenaean leaders, whose people invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. • The center of the Mycenaean kingdom was a palace surrounded by large farms. • The Mycenaeans began trading with the Minoans and learned much about Minoan culture. (pages 119–120)
The Early Greeks The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) • Before collapsing around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaean civilization was the most powerful on the Mediterranean. • The Dark Age occurred between 1100 B.C. and 150 B.C. and was a time of less trade and poverty among people. • The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing new weapons and farming technology to the Greek people. (pages 119–120)
The Early Greeks The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) • The Greeks learned about an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of their trading partners. • The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for different sounds. (pages 119–120)
The Early Greeks What was one positive result of the Dark Age? Greeks left the mainland and settled in other countries. This helped spread Greek culture.
The Early Greeks A Move to Colonize • After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up colonies in other countries. • This colonization spread Greek culture. • Trade between colonists and the parent cities grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for money instead of more goods. (page 121)
The Early Greeks What invention allowed merchants to trade for money? The Greeks began minting coins, which allowed merchants to trade for money.
The Early Greeks The Polis • A polis, or city-state, was like an independent country. • City-states varied in size and population. • An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was the main gathering place of the city-state. • An agora, or open area, served as a market and as a place for people to meet and debate issues. (pages 122–123)
The Early Greeks The Polis (cont.) • The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a country are treated equally and have rights and responsibilities. • In Greek city-states, only free, native-born, land-owning men could be citizens. • Citizens could vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. (pages 122–123)
The Early Greeks The Polis (cont.) • The military of the city-states was made of ordinary citizens, not nobles. • These citizens were called hoplites and fought each battle on foot instead of on horses. (pages 122–123)
The Early Greeks How does the Greek definition of a citizen compare to the modern idea of who is a United States citizen? Ancient Greeks decided that only free, native-born, land-owning men could be citizens. In modern United States, men and women, native-born and naturalized people can be citizens, whether they own property or not.
The Early Greeks What made the Minoans wealthy? trading pottery and stone vases
The Early Greeks How was a Greek city-state different from a city? City-states were tiny independent countries, while cities are part of a country.
The Early Greeks Summarize What changes occurred in Greece during the Dark Age? Trade slowed, poverty took hold, people stopped farming, people stopped teaching writing and craftwork, and many Greeks moved elsewhere.
The Early Greeks Citizenship Skills Name three rights granted to Greek citizens that American citizens have today. Answers include voting, holding office, owning property, defending themselves in court.
The Early Greeks Link to Economics Why did the use of money help trade to grow? Money is small and easier to trade than bartered goods.
The Early Greeks Discuss the following statement: “The geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did.”
Sparta and Athens Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces the development of Greek governments and compares the systems adopted by Sparta and Athens.
Sparta and Athens Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Tyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. • The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. • Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.
Sparta and Athens Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Sparta (SPAHR·tuh) • Athens (A·thuhnz) Meeting People • Solon (SOH·luhn) • Peisistratus (py·SIHS·truht·uhs) • Cleisthenes (KLYS·thuh·NEEZ)
Sparta and Athens Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • tyrant (TY·ruhnt) • oligarchy (AH·luh·GAHR·kee) • democracy (dih·MAH·kruh·see) • helot (HEH·luht) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Draw a Venn diagram like the one on page 124 of your textbook. Compare and contrast life in Sparta and Athens.
Sparta and Athens Tyranny in the City-States • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. • Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often could not pay back the debt. • The farmers lost their land and had to work for the nobles or were sold into slavery. (pages 125–126)
Sparta and Athens Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) • Unhappy farmers demanded changes in the power structure of the city-states. • This unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants, or people who take power by force and rule with total authority. • Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600s B.C. (pages 125–126)
Sparta and Athens Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) • Tyrants maintained their popularity by building marketplaces, temples, and walls. • The Greek people eventually tired of the tyrants and created oligarchies or democracies. • An oligarchy is a form of government in which a few people hold power. (pages 125–126)
Sparta and Athens Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) • A democracy is a form of government in which all citizens share power. • Sparta was an oligarchy; Athens was a democracy. (pages 125–126)
Sparta and Athens How are tyrants today different from those in ancient Greece? Today the word tyrant means a harsh, oppressive ruler. Today’s tyrants are not concerned with the common good of their country’s people.
Sparta and Athens Sparta • To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots. • To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans created a strong military of boys and men. • Boys entered the military at age seven. • At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived in the barracks for 10 years. (pages 126–127)
Sparta and Athens Sparta (cont.) • They returned home at age 30 but served in the army until age 60. • Spartan girls were trained in sports to become healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek women. • The Spartan government was an oligarchy containing two branches, a council of elders, and an assembly. (pages 126–127)
Sparta and Athens Sparta (cont.) • The Spartan government kept foreign travelers out and discouraged its own citizens from traveling in order to maintain control of the country. (pages 126–127)
Sparta and Athens What was one disadvantage of the Spartans’ focus on the military? They did not learn as much about science or practice as much trade as Greeks in Athens.
Sparta and Athens Athens • Boys in Athens attended school to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic. • Athenian girls learned household duties from their mothers. • Some wealthy girls learned reading, writing, and playing the lyre. • The government of early Athens was an oligarchy. (pages 128–130)
Sparta and Athens Athens (cont.) • A noble named Solon reformed the Athenian government in 594 B.C. • The tyrant Peisistratus seized power 30 years after Solon’s reforms. • Cleisthenes took power in 508 B.C. • He created a democracy in Athens. • Cleisthenes gave the assembly more power. (pages 128–130)
Sparta and Athens Athens (cont.) • He also created a new council to help the assembly carry out its duties. • Members of the council were chosen by lottery. (pages 128–130)
Sparta and Athens Why did the people of Athens remain unhappy after Solon’s reforms? Solon refused to give away land of the wealthy nobles, so the farmers remained unhappy.