Early India Chapter Introduction Section 1 India’s Early Civilizations Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism Section 3 India’s First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Early India Chapter Objectives • Describe how climate and geography affected India, and how the Aryans changed India. • Summarize the main tenets of Hinduism and Buddhism. • Discuss the effects of the Mauryan and Gupta empires on India.
India’s Early Civilizations Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes how geography and climate affected the Harappans and the changes to India’s civilization following the arrival of the Aryans.
India’s Early Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Climate and geography influenced the rise of India’s first civilization. • The Aryans conquered India and introduced new ideas and technology. • The Aryans created a caste system that separated Indians into groups.
India’s Early Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Himalaya (HIH·muh·LAY·uh) • Ganges River (GAN·JEEZ) • Indus River (IHN·duhs) • Harappa (huh·RA·puh) • Mohenjo-Daro (moh·HEHN·joh DAHR·oh)
India’s Early Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Aryans (AR·ee·uhnz) • Brahmans (BRAH·muhns) Building Your Vocabulary • subcontinent (SUHB·KAHN·tuhn·uhnt) • monsoon (mahn·SOON) • Sanskrit (SAN·SKRIHT)
India’s Early Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary (cont.) • raja (RAH·juh) • caste (KAST) • guru (GUR·oo) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 194 of your textbook showing how the Aryans changed India.
India’s Early Civilizations The Land of India • India is a subcontinent because it is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayas, the highest mountains in the world. • The Indian subcontinent contains five nations: India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. • India has two fertile river valleys created by the Ganges River and the Indus River. (pages 195–197)
India’s Early Civilizations The Land of India (cont.) • A monsoon is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer. • Monsoons bring rain in summer. • The first urban civilization in India arose near the Indus River after the river flooded and left fertile soil behind. • This civilization started about 3000 B.C. and lasted until about 1500 B.C. (pages 195–197)
India’s Early Civilizations The Land of India (cont.) • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were large, well-planned cities in ancient India. • The cities had wells, drains for wastewater, garbage chutes, and organized governments. • The houses were made from baked mud bricks. • Most people were farmers. • They grew wheat, barley, peas, and cotton. (pages 195–197)
India’s Early Civilizations The Land of India (cont.) • City dwellers were artisans, who made jewelry, pottery, tools, and cloth. • The Harappans traded their goods with people from other lands. (pages 195–197)
India’s Early Civilizations Why do archaeologists know little about Harappan society or government? The Harappans used an undecipherable script on seals and stamps and left no other historical records.
India’s Early Civilizations The Aryans • The Aryans were hunters who also raised and herded cattle. • The Aryans were also nomads and expert warriors. • They had metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots. • The Aryans left their home territory in Central Asia and began moving into the Indus River valley around 1500 B.C. (pages 198–199)
India’s Early Civilizations The Aryans Invade (cont.) • The Aryans became farmers but continued to raise cattle. • The cattle were so important, the Aryans eventually declared them sacred. • The Aryans invented an iron plow and built canals to improve farming. (pages 198–199)
India’s Early Civilizations The Aryans Invade (cont.) • The Aryans developed a written language called Sanskrit. • Aryan tribes were led by a raja, or prince. (pages 198–199)
India’s Early Civilizations Why were nomads good warriors? Because nomads traveled, they often met up with other people whom they considered enemies. They also came upon villages they needed to plunder for food.
India’s Early Civilizations Society in Ancient India • A caste is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. The Indian word for caste is jati. • The many jati are divided into four levels. • The top two levels included priests and warriors. • The next level was common people, such as merchants and farmers. (pages 199–201)
India’s Early Civilizations Society in Ancient India (cont.) • The fourth level included laborers and servants. • Untouchables were not part of any caste. • These people did dirty work considered polluting, and they led difficult lives. (pages 199–201)
India’s Early Civilizations Society in Ancient India (cont.) • Men’s lives were considered more important than women’s lives. • In most cases, only men could inherit property. • Only men were allowed to go to school or become priests. • Parents arranged marriages, and divorce was not allowed. (pages 199–201)
India’s Early Civilizations Under the caste system in India, what aspects of life are affected by a person’s caste? A caste affects what jobs people will have, who they can marry, and with whom they can eat or drink.
India’s Early Civilizations Describe the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were planned cities with wide main streets and a wall around each neighborhood. Each mud brick house had a flat roof and was laid out around a courtyard. Each city had public wells, a sewage system, and garbage disposal.
India’s Early Civilizations Why are monsoons important to Indian farmers? They cause soil-enriching floods.
India’s Early Civilizations Cause and Effect What caused the collapse of Harappan civilization? earthquakes, floods, the Indus River changing its course, and the Aryan invasions
India’s Early Civilizations Contrast How did the Aryan and Harappan lifestyles differ? Harappans were city-dwellers; Aryans were war-like nomads.
India’s Early Civilizations Explain How did the Aryans control the people they conquered? Possible answers: strong military, effects of caste system
India’s Early Civilizations Descriptive Writing Write a description of the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro that could have been used to attract residents to that city in ancient India. Answers should demonstrate understanding of the text.
India’s Early Civilizations Discuss the influence of geographic factors on the Harappans and the Aryans.
Hinduism and Buddhism Get Ready to Read Section Overview The religion of Hinduism is based on the beliefs of the Aryans. Buddhism, a new religion, was popular with many people in India and other areas of Asia.
Hinduism and Buddhism Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Hinduism grew out of the ancient beliefs of the Aryans. • A new religion, Buddhism, appealed to many people in India and other parts of Asia.
Hinduism and Buddhism Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Nepal (nuh·PAWL) • Tibet (tuh·BEHT) Meeting People • Siddhartha Gautama (sih·DAHR·tuh GOW·tuh·muh) • Dalai Lama (DAH·LY LAH·muh)
Hinduism and Buddhism Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • Hinduism (HIHN·doo·IH·zuhm) • Brahman (BRAH·muhn) • reincarnation (REE·ihn·kahr·NAY·shuhn) • dharma (DAHR·muh) • karma (KAHR·muh) • Buddhism (BOO·DIH·zuhm) • nirvana (nihr·VAH·nuh) • theocracy (thee·AH·kruh·see)
Hinduism and Buddhism Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Create a web diagram like the one on page 202 of your textbook. In the ovals, identify major beliefs of Hinduism.
Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism • Hinduism, the world’s third largest religion, is one of the oldest religions. • Hinduism’s roots are in the Aryan religion, which changed after borrowing ideas from people encountered in India. • The Brahman is the universal spirit made up of thousands of deities. (pages 203–204)
Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism (cont.) • The Upanishads are ancient sacred texts that describe the search for Brahman. • Reincarnation is the idea of passing through many lives to reach the Brahman. • Dharma is the divine law of Hindus. (pages 203–204)
Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism (cont.) • This law states that Hindus must perform the duties of their caste. • The consequences of how a person lives is called karma. (pages 203–204)
Hinduism and Buddhism According to Hindus, what are the consequences of a good and a bad life? Hindus believe if a person lives a good life, then that person might be reborn into a higher varna or jati. If the person lives a bad life, then the person might be reborn in a lower varna or jati.
Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism • Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the man who became known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” • Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who left his family and wealth to travel. • In his travels, he saw much suffering and questioned the need for suffering. (pages 205–208)
Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism (cont.) • Legend tells he meditated under a tree for 49 days, and then he understood. • For the rest of his life, Siddhartha traveled to tell people about his discovery. • Nirvana, a state of wisdom, occurs when a person gives up all desires. (pages 205–208)
Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism (cont.) • The core of Buddha’s teaching is called the Four Noble Truths. • The Eightfold Path describes the steps to eliminate suffering. • Buddhism divided into Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. • Theravada Buddhists believe the Buddha was a great teacher, not a god. (pages 205–208)
Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism (cont.) • Mahayana Buddhists believe the Buddha was a god who came to save people. • Tibet is a country in central Asia where Mahayana Buddhism mixed with traditional Tibetan religion and Hinduism to create a special kind of Mahayana Buddhism. • In Tibet, religious leaders, called lamas, headed the government. (pages 205–208)
Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism (cont.) • The Dalai Lama was the government leader, and the Panchen Lama was the religious leader. • A theocracy is a form of government in which religious leaders head the government. (pages 205–208)
Hinduism and Buddhism Why was Buddhism popular with people of lower castes? The Buddha taught that a person’s life depended on the person, not the caste into which the person was born. He believed that a person could stop being reborn by following the Eightfold Path. This gave lower caste people hope.
Hinduism and Buddhism What are the Upanishads? The Upanishads are ancient religious writings that describe the search for a universal spirit.
Hinduism and Buddhism What is reincarnation? Reincarnation is a religious belief that a soul is reborn many times.
Hinduism and Buddhism Describe Explain the concept of karma. Karma is the consequences a soul faces in its next life for its actions in this life.
Hinduism and Buddhism Explain What is the importance of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path? The Four Noble Truths explain why people suffer. The Eightfold Path describes behaviors that will end suffering.