SAFE FOOD AND WATER FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards: BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases producing food poisoning or food intoxication. Can be due to: Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc. Virus - hepatitis A, polio, rotavirus, etc. Parasites - amoeba, ascaris, giardia, etc. CHEMICAL Chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides PHYSICAL Glass, nails, wood, plastic
Fecal Transmission of Food- and Waterborne Diseases BACTERIA germs germs HANDS The fecal-oral cycle: Germs go from hands to the mouth, through the intestines, excreted in the feces (bowel movement) and back on the hands when a person wipes him- or herself after a bowel movement.
What do germs need to grow ? 1-FOOD AND WATER - High protein foods (meat, poultry, dairy products, etc.) are dangerous foods. Germs cannot grow on dry foods. If water is added bacterial growth explodes. 2-WARMTH - THE DANGER ZONE = +5°C (+40°F) to +63°C (+145°F) 3-TIME - Some bacteria divide every 10 minutes! + +
The " Dangerous Foods " Those foods where bacteria multiply quickly. Those which are not cooked before being served. Precooked, ready to eat foods - Cooked meat, poulty, hot dogs Milk, cream, dairy products Raw eggs and products made from eggs (mayonnaise, ice cream) Shellfish and seafood Hot and humid climates are more dangerous than cold and dry ones because the heat and moisture cause foods to spoil more rapidly. Restaurants and hotels are usually safer than street markets and local food vendors.
Symptoms of Food Intoxication DIARRHEA – 4 to 5 watery bowel movements per day. Usually develops within 6 hours after eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water and usually lasts 1-2 days. Longer in severe cases. Symptoms may last up to 7 days and also include: abdominal cramps nausea and vomiting bloating, malaise Severe food contamination can lead to dysentery and fever above 101°F(38.5°C).
The Geography of Diarrhea Diarrhea Risk Yellow = Low Orange = Medium Red = High High Risk Areas: Developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Middle East and Asia. Note: Diarrhea can also be a symptom of malaria!
Prevention of Food- and Waterborne Diseases BEFORE LEAVING HOME – Get Vaccinated! Vaccinations do not protect against all food- and waterborne diseases but provide protection against a certain number of serious illnesses transmitted by food and water: hepatitis A, typhoid, polio. Even with these vaccinations everyone must follow the advice concerning food and water safety.
Prevention of Food- and Waterborne Diseases Wash them!!! Always wash hands with hot water + soap + dry thoroughly After going to the toilet Before handling food and in between handling raw and cooked food After combing hair After eating After blowing your nose After smoking After handling waste food After handling refuse
Food Hygiene in Company Facilities FOOD POISONING --> ILLNESS --> DEATH One food handler can knock out the entire work force of a rig or crew within a few days! The location manager, camp boss, crew chief etc. is responsible for: - maintaining the standards of food handlers (medically certified and correctly trained) - maintaining the standards of food storage and preparation.
Food Handlers must: Be in good health. If suffering from diarrhea, vomiting or food-borne infections they should not handle food. Have clean hands. Have no infectious diseases. If skin infection, unprotected cut or sore, heavy cold, ear or eye discharge, food handlers must be removed from the food chain. When handling food, they must: Not smoke Cover their hair with a hairnet Wear protective clothing Not wear jewelry (watch, ring, etc.) Not spit, sneeze or cough on or near food Not touch their mouth, tongue, nose or eyes
Important - In the Kitchen Check that: Health and hygiene of food handlers is OK Food handlers wear clean, protective clothing Kitchen and equipment are kept clean Food is kept covered Food handling is reduced: use tongs,trays plates rather than hands Raw and cooked foods are always kept separate Screens are placed on doors and windows to keep out flies and insects Insects, rodents and pets are not allowed in the kitchen area Food is correctly stored and correctly conserved Food quarters are regularly and correctly cleaned Waste and refuse are rapidly removed
Cooking Destroys Germs! Food must be cooked thoroughly ! All heat processed foods are bacteria-free. Heat processed foods are those which are: -pasteurized -sterilized -canned
Food Storage Food must be correctly stored outside of the DANGER ZONE: storage must be below +5°C (40°F) (refrigerator) or above +63°C (145°F) (bain marie) Food must stay as little time as possible during preparation in the DANGER ZONE. Do not leave foods at room temperature. Suitable preservatives, such as salt and sugar, must be used. Dried foods must not be allowed to absorb moisture.
Food Storage Dry foods must be stored in a location that is: Dry Cool Well lit Correctly ventilated Vermin proof Clean and tidy Foods must be checked upon delivery. And stored off the floor on shelves or stainless steel racks.
Food Storage Perishable foods must be placed in the refrigerator. Refrigerator should operate at or below 5°C (40°F). A thermometer should be placed in the warmest part of the refrigerator and checked daily. The refrigerator should be cleaned weekly. Frozen foods should be transported and stocked in the freezer at -18°C (0°F).
Foods must be refused if: They are delivered in damaged or leaking cartons. They are delivered in soiled trays. They have been infested by insects or rodents. They contain cans that are rusty or bady dented. They are out of date.
Water and Beverages • In many countries you should AVOID: • tap water • ice cubes – Freezing the water does not • make it safe to drink. Ice cubes are often • made from tap water. • Commercially bottled water is usually safe to drink. • Make sure it is served sealed and you observe the opening. • When in doubt, use bottled water to also wash teeth. • Drinks that have been boiled are safe (tea, coffee, soup). • Bottled or canned drinks (fruit juice, carbonated drinks, etc.) are usually safe.
Safe or " Clean " Water • Disinfecting water to obtain safe or " clean " water usually requires one or more of the following: • Filtering • Boiling – 1 minute kills all germs • Boiled water can be used for drinking (let cool), cooking, making ice cubes, brushing teeth, washing fruits and vegetables. It must be used within 24 hours and then either discarded or reboiled unless it has been chemically treated. • Chemical treatment – Chlorine, Chlorine + Silver, Iodine Boiling – the best technique for the traveler
Treatment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases • The main problem is diarrhea: • Certain foods reduce diarrhea – bananas, rice, applesauce, dry toast (BRAT diet) • Replace lost fluids – drink " clean " water or commercial rehydration solutions • Antimotility medication (ex: Imodium) • If diarrhea is severe (more than 8 liquid stools per day) and is associated with fever, bloody stools, repeated vomiting and it continues for more than 3 days => SEE A DOCTOR. An antibiotic will usually be prescribed.
For More Information: For more information see the Schlumberger TRAVEL GUIDE TO SAFE FOOD AND WATER also downloadable from the health hub at: www.healthhub.slb.com(Risk Management/Health Documentation)