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Children and Adolescents with ADHD

Children and Adolescents with ADHD

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Children and Adolescents with ADHD

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  1. Children and Adolescents withADHD Long-term randomized controlled study Dr.Nezla S. Duric Child and AdolescentPsychiatrist /PhD

  2. Children and Adolescents with ADHD 3 steps

  3. ADHD Etiology "The cause has been attributed to biofactors. The outcome has to do with how the child meets the environment and how the environment meets the child" Professor Eric Taylor at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College in London

  4. Characteristics of ADHD Lifelong Perspective PsychiatriccomorbidityAcademicperformance Occupational status Psychiatriccomorbidity Smoking/abuse Criminality Risk behaviour Social skills Selfesteem Psychiatriccomorbidity School performance Smoking/abuse Risk behaviour Social skills Selfesteem Behaviour problems Social skills Self esteem Pre-schoolAdolescent Adult School-age College-age Behaviour problems Learning difficulties Social skills Selfesteem Academicperformance Relationships Social skills Selfesteem Halmøy et al, Journal of Attention Disorders, 2009

  5. ADHD patho-physiology • Cortical maturation • Cortical rhytme • Arousal level

  6. Corticalmaturation and EEG Brain activity: Delta (0,1-4 Hz) Theta (4-7 Hz) Alpha (8-11 Hz) Beta(12-30 Hz) Gamma (over 30 Hz)

  7. EEG - ADHD Increased levels of Theta and / or reduced levels of Beta or Alpha brain activity in persons with ADHD (Snyder, 2006); elevated Theta/beta ratio in resting EEG (Barry 2003);reduced CNV (Banaschewski,2007) Brain activity: Delta (0,1-4 Hz) Theta (4-7 Hz) Alpha (8-11 Hz) Beta(12-30 Hz) Gamma (over 30 Hz)

  8. The international 10-20-System of electrode/sensor positions (Neuroscience for Kids, Erich H. Chudler)

  9. Self-Regulation – Arousal Curve Performance Optimum Self- regulation- processes Arousal

  10. ADHD and Treatment Pharmacological Treatment Non-pharmacological Treatment Psychostimulants Non-psychostimulants Neurofeedback BehaviouralTreatments Alternative Treatments

  11. ADHD and Treatment Pharmacological Treatment Non-pharmacological Treatment Psychostimulants Non-psychostimulants Neurofeedback BehaviouralTreatments Alternative Treatments

  12. ADHD and Treatment - Alternatives Pharmacological Treatment Non-pharmacological Treatment Psychostimulants Non-psychostimulants Neurofeedback BehaviouralTreatments Alternative Treatments

  13. Neurofeedback • Training of self-regulation • of brain activity • Application: neurophysiological dysfunction and enhacement of self-regulation ability • Feedback: visual, auditory, tactile Heinrich, H., H. Gevensleben, and U. Strehl, Annotation: neurofeedback - train your brain to train behaviour. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 2007.

  14. ADHD and NF games The Juggler

  15. Children and Adolescents with ADHD • UNIQUE STUDY DESIGN • CLINICAL STUDY • LARGE SAMPLE SIZE • RANDOMIZATION • CONTROL GROUP • THREE ARMED GROUPS • LONG-TERM STUDY

  16. Part I Characteristicsof ADHD Aims of the Study • Describe characteristics of Norwegian children and adolescents referred for ADHD symptoms. • Explore primary healthcare ability to identify ADHD symptoms.

  17. Part I Characteristicsof ADHD Aims of the Study • Describe characteristics of Norwegian children and adolescents referred for ADHD symptoms. • Explore primary health care’s ability to identify ADHD symptoms.

  18. Part III qEEG in ADHD Aims of the Study • DefineqEEGchanges-Biomarkers • DefineqEEGchanges _ Treatmentpredictors • Exploarecorrelationbetweenbehavioral and qEEGparametars

  19. Participants Part I: Characteristics of ADHD Population Referredn = 494 Other Diagnosis Referredn = 397 (62 %) PHC* ADHD Referredn = 187 (38 %) non ADHDn = 91 CAMHC** ADHDn = 96 (51 %) * Primary Health Care **ChildAdolescents Mental Health Clinic, The Fonna Health Trust, Haugesund

  20. Participants Part II/III: Treatment and qEEG ADHD Invited Participants: 243(of 285) Refused Participation: 113 (46 %) T1 Randomized: 130 (54 %) Medication44 (34 %) Neurofeedback + Medication44 (34 %) Neurofeedback42 (32 %) Dropout: 39 (30 %) T2 Completed Follow up: 91 (70 %) Neurofeedback + Medication30 (23 %) Neurofeedback30 (23 %) Medication31 (24 %)

  21. Methods ADHD Treatment

  22. ADHD Treatment in the study Multimodal treatment

  23. Time perspective Treatment Follow-up Baseline T 3 T 0 T 1 T 2 Follow-up

  24. Results Part I: Characteristics of ADHD referred population (N=187) • 5. referred child has ADHD • Half of ADHD children live with • both biological parents • Twice ADHD children in forster • family • 5. ADHD children in institution

  25. Results Part I: Characteristics of ADHD referred population (N=187) Average referral age 10,5 år; 82% boys • 5. referred child has ADHD • Half of ADHD children live with • both biological parents • Twice ADHD children in forster • family • 5. ADHD children in institution

  26. Results Part I: Characteristics of ADHD referred population (N=187) Clinical examination: • Increased risk of low birth weight • increased TSH • Somatic co-morbid conditions

  27. Characteristics of ADHD population

  28. Characteristics of ADHD population

  29. Primary Health Care

  30. Participants Part I: Characteristics of ADHD Population Referredn = 494 OtherDiagnosisReferredn = 397 (62 %) PHC* none ADHD ADHD Referredn = 187 (38 %) no ADHDn = 91 CAMHC** 34 none diagnose ADHDn = 96 (51 %) * Primary Health Care **ChildAdolescents Mental Health Clinic, The Fonna Health Trust, Haugesund

  31. Primary Health Care • The sensitivity was 51% (96/187) regarding primary health care`s ability to recognize ADHD. • The specificity was 100% (0/494) • Need for specific screening programs and diagnostic guidelines for primary health care

  32. Results Part II: Treatment Response based on reports one week later * Adjusted models did not show any effect (power)

  33. Results Part II: Correlation Children, Parent`s and Teacher`s reports

  34. Results Part II: Treatment Response based on reports LONG TERM • Effectiveness Patterns towards Treatment

  35. Results Part II: Treatment Response based on reports LONG TERM New evidence for the long-term efficacy of multimodal treatment: • stimulant medication • NF

  36. Conclusion: Part I

  37. Conclusion: Part I

  38. Conclusion: Part II

  39. Conclusion: Part II

  40. Part III Qeeg

  41. Future perspectives • Follow up over time • qEEG analyses

  42. Papers 1. Duric N.S., Elgen I. Characteristics of Norwegian children suffering from ADHD symptoms: ADHD and primary health care. Psychiatry Research. 2011, 188 (2011) 402-405. (Number of citations: 4) 2. Duric N.S., Elgen I. Norwegian Children and Adolescents with ADHD – A Retrospective Clinical Study: Subtypes and Comorbid Conditions and Aspects of Cognitive Performance and Social Skills. Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Number of citations: 3) 3. Duric N.S., Assmuss J., Gundersen D., Elgen I. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC Psychiatry, 2012, Vol.12, No. 1; 107. (Number of citations: 12) 4. Duric N.S., AssmussJ.,Elgen I. NF treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: Self-reported evaluation. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, December 2013.

  43. I have ADSL, What s difference with ADHD ? It goes faster with ADHD

  44. Thank you