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DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM PowerPoint Presentation
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DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM

DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM

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DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM

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  1. DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM

  2. OVERVIEW • Issues and Events • Political Objectives • Military Objectives and Strategy • Military Technology and Technique • The Call-Up • Airpower Opens the War • The Last 100 Hours • Lessons Learned • The Future

  3. ISSUES AND EVENTS • Middle East • Part of the Ottoman Empire • French build Suez canal, 1859 • British gain financial control, 1875 • Industrial revolution, 1900, OIL! • Occupied by Britain during WWI • League of Nations mandateunder UK administration, 1920 • Independence as a kingdom, ’32as a "republic“, ‘58 • Actuality a series of militarystrongmen

  4. ISSUES AND EVENTS • Saddam Hussein • Born 1937, near Takrit • Tyrannical stepfather, moved to Baghdad to live with Uncle, political activist, ‘47 • Political ruffian, thug, joins Baath party ~20, willing gunman on “hit” squads • Baath party; ’63-’64, ’68; Chief of Security (assassinations) • Military college honorary degree, ’70 • Saladin, drove Crusaders from Jerusalem, 1187 (Kurd) • Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, conquered Jerusalem, 507B.C. • Purges party and government, ’79 • Army important, but political loyalty more important than military competence • Not religious unless to his advantage

  5. ISSUES AND EVENTS • Iran 89% Shiite, Iraq 65% Shiite, Saddam Hussein Sunni • Worldwide: 15% Shiites; 85% Sunnis • Shiites feel persecuted, their history of defeat and frequent subjugation has also led to a cult of death and martyrdom • However, Sunnis can be very conservative; Saudi Arabia, Al Qaeda, etc.

  6. Iran-Iraq War • The Iran-Iraq War • Iraq buys USSR weapons, 70s and 80s • French fighters • Invades Iran 1980, 8-year war of attrition, hundreds of thousands of casualties • U.S. actually sees Iraq more favorable than Iran • Both sides target cities with Scud missiles (terror) • Uses poison gas at least twice • Disastrous defeat, ’86, but Iran too exhausted to take advantage • Fortunate to exit this stage as well as they did • Never demonstrated strategy • Failed to concentrate or coordinate use of forces • Amateurishly unrealistic in expectations • Rebuilds army, attacks in ’88 push Iran back to ~original borders, truce

  7. ISSUES AND EVENTS • The Iran-Iraq War • Fighting lasts 5 months, Iraq wins every battle, restores border • Renewed confidence • World’s 4th largest army; 6th largest air force, ’90 • Military budget $721 per Iraqi per year; average income, $1950 • Stockpiled poison gas and delivery systems • Technology to build nuclear weapons • 1,200 Scud missiles • Believes he can unite Arabs by conquering some Arab states then “persuading” the others to join a Pan-Arab union, with him as leader • U.S. and others, including Arab neighbors, concerned

  8. ISSUES AND EVENTS • Warnings Ignored • Most significant defense issue in U.S. was reduction of armed forces and allocate the “peace dividend” • Israel attacks Iraqi nuclear development site, ’81 • U.S. declares region vital to national interests, but didn’t maintain large military presence in area • Central Command established 1983 • $1B fuel, ammunition, and equipment in Oman, prepositioned ships • Dozens of airfields/installations, Saudi Arabia • Iraq positions forces for attack on Kuwait • U.S. couldn’t move forces into region, diplomatic • Saudi Arabia, real worry, no match for military either • Iraq + Kuwait + Saudi Arabia = > ½ world’s oil • Rapid deployment of U.S. airpower to Saudi Arabia • Kuwait would give Iraq seaports • Needed Kuwait wealth for payment on $40M debt

  9. ISSUES AND EVENTS • The “Internal Look” Rehearsal, 17 July ‘90 • Computer based command post exercise • CIA reports 10,000 troops, 300 tanks on Kuwait border • Iraq assures Saudi Arabia and Egypt that they will not attack Kuwait • Iraq Invades Kuwait, 2 Aug ’90 • Kuwait army overwhelmed • Royal family barely escapes • Iraq redeploys army against Saudi Arabia • Saudi ground forces <70,000 • U.N. passes resolution condemning attack • U.S. and USSR jointly call for withdrawal from Kuwait • Carriers move toward Middle East • Could not send Air Force without invite from King

  10. ISSUES AND EVENTS • Iraq Invades Kuwait, 3 Aug ’90 • CENTCOM finishes air campaign plan to stop Iraq andeventually drive them from Kuwait • Operation Desert Shield proposed to Saudi Arabia • 250,000 troops • 500 aircraft • Carriers and support ships • Largest deployment since • Vietnam • King Fahd agrees • No war without King’s permission • Withdrawal of all forceswhen over • Begins 5 month build-upof U.S. forces inSaudi Arabia

  11. POLITICAL OBJECTIVES • The Commitment • Secure the immediate, unconditional, and complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait • Restoring the legitimate government of Kuwait • Assuring the security and stability of the region • Protecting American lives • Military objectives and means were permitted to match the clarity of the political objectives, REMOVAL OF SADDAM NOT INCLUDED • The Execution • Modern technology delivered to region • Precision guided munitions • Intelligence collection • Communications • Space assets • Complemented by almost unbroken string of incorrect decisions by Iraqis

  12. MILITARY OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY • Objectives • Air campaign to paralyze the government/military • Strategic targets; military command and control, production/delivery systems for WMD • Technology • Stealth • Night-fighting capability • Missile defense • Satellites • Imagery • Missile warning • Weather • GPS • Communications

  13. THE CALL-UP • Building Up • F-15s, AWACS, 82nd Airborne Div elements; 8 Aug • 5 fighter squadrons in less than 1 week • 82nd and 24th Mechanized Infantry Div by fast sealift • Egyptian and Moroccan troops, 11 Aug • Etc., Etc., Etc. • Interesting facts • 6,000 volunteers on active duty augmenting Military Airlift Command • 6% of forces were women • Helicopter, reconnaissance and refueling pilots • Truck drivers and mechanics • Commanded units up to brigade/group • 2 captured by Iraq • Civil Reserve Air Fleet activated; 18 airliners; 20 cargo planes with crews, 24x7

  14. THE CALL-UP • Efforts Continue to Build a Coalition • 38 nations; 8 Arab • The Forces Square Off • Iraq has 160,000 troops and 1,000 tanks in Kuwait, 16 Aug • Iraq detains British and Americans in Iraq as human shields • Iraq increases forces in Kuwait to 430,000 • Full mobilization = 1M men, 75% between 18 and 24 • U.S. forces increase to ~240,000 in Nov; 500,000 by Jan • Spring weather (rain), religious holidays in March = Jan start • Iraqi combat engineers lay minefields, mound berms, dig trenches and build underground bunkers • Iraq has 150,000 troops in Kuwait, 900,000 overall • 3,000 artillery, multiple rocket launchers • 750 fighter, bomber and armed trainer aircraft/200 support aircraft • 16,000 SAMs, 7,000 anti-aircraft guns, 1,200 scuds • Iraq announces Kuwait as 19th province • Bush ultimatum for 15 Jan; 17 Jan attack begins

  15. AIRPOWER OPENS THE WAR • H-hour • 3 AM in Baghdad • F-117s, B-52s(ALCMs), TLAMs • AWACs, E-2Cs, RC-135s (electronic collections), drones, U-2s, TR-1s • The Opening Attack • Western Iraqi air defenses (radar sites, control vans, scud sites, command posts) • The Main Attack • communications, electric production, airfields, naval facilities, coastal defenses, military installations, troop concentrations, chemical/ biological/nuclear production and storage sites, SAMs, AAA • 400 strike aircraft, 250 support aircraft, 116 cruise missiles

  16. THE LAST 100 HOURS • Beginning of the End • 6-week air offensive • Communications and supply lines cut • ½ of armor destroyed • ½ of troops along border killed • Minefields, barbed wire, trenches w/ oil eliminated • Poorest troops in front so Allies could expend momentum killing them • Worked; but not as Iraq hoped; took troops, equipment and supplies to care for thousands of surrendering Iraqis • Successful Deception • 6 divisions guarded Kuwait coast • 200,000 troops, 65,000 vehicles,fuel, ammunition, spare parts, foodmoved west

  17. THE LAST 100 HOURS • The Ground Battle begins • Air/artillery/helicopter strikes • 1st Marines breach first 2 lines • JFC-E seizes initial objectives • Naval ships, USS Wisconsin • Weather, wind blows northwestpushing smoke from oil fires • Densest minefields/obstacles • Iraqi artillery ineffective • U.S counterbattery fire highlyeffective • JFC-N difficulty crossing barriers, especially fire trenches • 1st Cav feint into Kuwait, forcing 4 Iraqi divisions attention to South • 101st leapfrogs into Iraq, 80 miles, prep for Euphrates to cut off retreat • 24th Mech Inf Div drives for Hwy 8, then right towards Basrah • Etc., etc., etc. • Chemical attacks would have complicated attack…stockpiles of chemical weapons were found, but not used • 8,000 prisoners

  18. THE LAST 100 HOURS • Day Two of the Ground Battle • 101st Air Assault Div blocks Hwy 8 • Marines push towards Kuwait City • Navy decoys along coast • The Rout • Iraq falls back into Kuwait City • Commandeer any vehicle available • Loaded with stolen goods • TVs, Refrigerators, Clothes, Jewelry • Each vehicle tracked on J-Stars radar • F-15Es with targeting pods stop convoy • Target front and back of column • U.S. Losses Coalition Losses • 148 battlefield deaths 99 battlefield deaths • 145 non-battlefield deaths • 467 wounded 434 wounded

  19. THE LAST 100 HOURS • The End and the Aftermath • 517 oil wellhead fires burning in Kuwait • Hussein wanted war of attrition, but got technology war • Largest tank battle since 1943 on 27 Feb • One of last Scud missiles fired hit billeting facility in Dhahran • 28 dead, 100 wounded • Lessons Learned • Iraq was ideal location for war • Good weather, flat terrain, no jungle • Iraq had central source of supply with 1 railroad and only a few good roads • 5 months to build forces in area • Saudi Arabia supplied concrete, food, water, and transportation • It probably won’t be this perfect again any time soon

  20. CONCLUSION • Issues and Events • Political Objectives • Military Objectives and Strategy • Military Technology and Technique • The Call-Up • Airpower Opens the War • The Last 100 Hours