History of Iraq • After the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the land known as Iraq fell into British hands. • In 1932, Iraq was established. • Iraq is filled with three main groups: • Sunni and ShiiteArabs • SunniKurds • Which color represents • religion and which color represents ethnicity?
Iraq • Arabic people – 75% of population • 60% - Shi’ite Muslim • Sunni Muslim Arabs – governed country for most of last 100 years (even though they are minority) • Kurds – also Sunni Muslims – 3rd largest group • Oil industry – most important. 2nd largest oil reserves in the world • 3 major wars and many rebellions
What is ironic about Sunni Muslim Arabs governing Iraq for 100 years? How might the presence of different ethnic groups and different Muslim sects spell trouble for Iraq?
Saddam Hussein • From one transfer of power to another, the people of Iraq suffered uprisings, political instability, and many revolutions. • July 16th, 1979 Saddam, as leader of the Baath Party, declared himself the 5th president of Iraq • Didn’t like the western world/America • After he took power – got rid of many of his rivals • Many countries/world leaders saw him as a dictator • Led Iraq into war with Iran
How might Hussein’s hatred of the West have made difficulties for his country, especially since it is Western nations that buy most of Iraq’s oil?
Iran/Iraq War1980-1988 • 1980 - Saddam declared war on Iran in hopes of gaining territory in the Persian Gulf. • Saddam feared a Shi’a uprising in his country after the Shi’a Iranian Revolution. • Very expensive war – caused Iraq to become indebted to Kuwait and Jordan • War ends in 1988 • At the end of this war – Kurdish tribes began an uprising. • Saddam’s response was to use poisonous gas against Kurds in Northern Iraq.
Persian Gulf WarThe Next War of Iraq • At the end of the Iran/Iraq War Saddam Hussein felt like Kuwait should forgive the massive loans that Kuwait made to Iraq. • Kuwait didn’t!!! Demanded repayment • Kuwait 5th largest produce of oil in the world – though small it was very rich. • SADDAM WAS FURIOUS!! • 1990 – Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait – this set off the Persian Gulf War
How do you think Saddam Hussein’s rule might have added to Iraq’s problems?
Saddam’s Accusations Accused Kuwait of 1. flooding market with too much oil – decreasing the price – thus costing Iraq millions 2. ‘slant drilling’ – sticking long pipes under Iraqi border and stealing his oil Demanded $27 million from Kuwait!!! They refused to pay – he decided to invade!!
What do you suppose might have been other motives for Saddam Hussein wishing to conquer Kuwait?
Invasion • Iraq had 4th largest army in the world • Well equipped with military hardware by US and Soviet Union from war with Iran • Kuwait was conquered in a matter of days
Shocked!! • Other countries thought they were next • Saudi Arabia – world’s largest oil producer and very wealthy country • US – afraid Iraq would cut off their source of oil, driving up the price • This would have destroyed the economies of these countries
What American industries do you think would have been in particular danger if the supply of oil from the Middle East had been cut off?
United Nations Gets Involved • Security Council spoke out against the invasion • Told Iraq to withdraw • George H. Bush – sent first American troops and warplanes to Persian Gulf area (August 1990) • Wanted to protect Saudi Arabia from an invasion by Iraq • Became known as Operation Desert Shield
Over Quickly!! • Saddam Hussein defied the order of the UN • January 16, 1991 – Operation Desert Shield begins. The US and others launched a massive air strike on Iraqi military targets in defense of Saudi Arabia. • Operation Desert Shield ended in January, 1991, and it was replaced by Operation Desert Storm, the military offensive against Iraq's forces in Kuwait. • Short war – 42 days but very deadly • Thousands of lives lost and Kuwait was left in ruins • Iraqis left but Saddam Hussein stayed in power there for another 12 years
Despite Iraq’s defeat in the Persian Gulf War, why had the war’s outcome not really addressed the most major problem in Iraq?
The Struggle Continues • Despite the victory, much work remained in Iraq. • In 2002, President Bush and other western leaders felt that Saddam Hussein had: • WMDs (Weapons of Mass Destruction) • connections to Al Qaeda. • Saddam denied everything, but refused to let UN investigators into Iraq to prove his innocence. • BUT under the conditions to Saddam’s surrender of the Gulf War, he was supposed to let these investigators in because Saddam was known for using chemical weapons against the Kurds.
Reasons the US felt Saddam was a threat: • Suspicions of WMD’s • Refusing UN investigators • Previous use of chemical weapons against the Kurds
Invasion of Iraq • April 2003, Iraq was invaded by the US and a coalition of other nations • Excluding the UN • The invasion quickly succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein • December of 2003 He was found hiding in an underground hole by US forces • December 2006, Saddam was executed.
After Saddam Hussein • Iraqi’s worked to: →to establish a new government →create a constitution →hold democratic elections. • US troops remained in Iraq to maintain order and battle small groups of fighters still loyal to the fallen Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein. • January 2009, President Obama sends US troops home and allows the Iraqi government to take care of itself.
September 11 2001 • Twin Towers • Pentagon • Pennsylvania On September 11, 2001,nearly 3000 civilians lost their lives in New York City(Twin Towers), Arlington Va.(The Pentagon) and Pennsylvania. The United States identified members of al-Qaeda, an organization that was part of an extreme Muslim government in Afghanistan, the Taliban, as the perpetrators of the attacks
Hunting Down Terrorists • US officials determined that members of al-Qaeda terrorist group under the direction of Osama bin Laden were responsible for the attacks of 9/11. • As a result President Bush declares a War on Terror • Assembled an international coalition that invaded Afghanistan on October 2001
OSAMA BIN LADEN • Bin Laden lived in Afghanistan and directed the terrorist attacks under the protection of the country’s extreme Islamic government , the Taliban. • The United States demanded that the Taliban turn over bin Laden. The Taliban refused and the US forces began bombing Taliban command centers and al-Qaeda training camps
The US maintains a presence in Afghanistan and is helping to rebuild the government after the Taliban was overthrown, but there is still violence and terrorist attacks in this region.
Osama Bin Laden is dead, President Obama announced in a televised address to the nation. His death was the result of a U.S. operation launched in Abbottabad, Pakistan, against a compound where bin Laden was believed to be hiding, according to U.S. intelligence. After a firefight, a small team of American forces killed bin Laden and took possession of his body, the president said. “Tonight I can report to the American people and the world that the United States has conducted an operation that killed Osama bin Laden,” “Justice has been done,” he said, in comments that marked a formal end of the manhunt for the most visible and emotionally-charged symbol of the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.