the gulf war aug 1990 march 1991 n.
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DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM PowerPoint Presentation
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  1. The Gulf War Aug 1990 - March 1991 DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM

  2. Intro. To the Gulf War • Persian Gulf War, conflict beginning in August 1990, when Iraqi forces invaded and occupied Kuwait. • The conflict culminated in fighting in January and February 1991 between Iraq and an international coalition of forces led by the United States. • By the end of the war, the coalition had driven the Iraqis from Kuwait.

  3. Saddam Hussein [1937-2006] • Saddam Hussein (1937-2006), former president of Iraq (1979-2003), who led Iraq into two devastating wars. • Hussein’s regime was characterized by brutal suppression of internal opposition. • Hussein was overthrown in April 2003 by a United States-led invasion. • His execution took place in December 2006.

  4. Why did Saddam Invade Kuwait? • Iraq was broke after the Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s • Invaded Kuwait for the oil revenue • Saddam believed he could get away with it.

  5. Background to War 1. Iraq had a number of reasons for attacking Kuwait. Iraq had never really accepted the state of Kuwait and considered it to be part the land between the rivers, Euphrates and Tigris rivers that belong to Iraq. 2. Iraq thought the underground oil along the border with Kuwait was theirs. 3. Iraq claimed before the war, Kuwait was responsible for the reducing world oil prices. 4.Saddam Hussein claimed that Kuwait owed his country money for Iraq’s economic losses. Kuwait's leaders refused all of Saddam's demands and increased its oil production by 40 percent. 5. It is clear that Iraq expected to claim as its territory Kuwait and that they initially never expected an allied force to fight back.

  6. US and UN: Get Out of Kuwait • On November 29, 1990, with coalition forces massing in Saudi Arabia and Iraq showing no signs of retreat, the UN Security Council passed a resolution to allow member states to “use all necessary means” to force Iraq from Kuwait if Iraq remained in the country after January 15, 1991.

  7. US Divided Over First Gulf War • A large minority of the U.S. population opposed military action. Opponents were concerned that the armed forces would suffer large casualties and argued that the only reason for the invasion was to guarantee a cheap supply of oil.

  8. President Bush vs. Saddam Hussein

  9. US Congress Sanctions War • On January 12, 1991, the U.S. Congress narrowly passed a resolution authorizing the president to use force, nullifying the domestic debate.

  10. Powell and Schwarzkopf • In the early morning of January 17, 1991, coalition forces began a massive air attack on Iraqi targets.

  11. First Gulf War: 1990-1991 • The Powell Doctrine • 1. Overwhelming Force • 2. Maximize allies in a multi-nation coalition • 3. Exit Strategy

  12. Bombing of Iraq by allied aircraft

  13. Bomb damage by allied aircraft

  14. “Desert Storm” in 1991 • On February 24, 1991, the coalition launched its long-anticipated land offensive.

  15. Ground attack day three of the war saw the largest tank battle in history. The American armoured forces engaged the tank forces of the Republican Guard, Iraq's elite force. American tanks complete destroyed over 500 Iraqi tanks and other heavy armour without losing a single tank. During the third day, the Iraqi army began a headlong retreat from Kuwait and southern Iraq in doing so set over 400 Kuwait oil wells on fire. Their retreat being cut off by allied aircraft and with their vehicles being destroyed from the air the Iraqis fled on foot. That night allied troops freed Kuwait City.

  16. Quick War • On February 28, with the collapse of Iraqi resistance and the recapture of Kuwait—thereby fulfilling the coalition’s stated goals—the coalition declared a cease-fire. The land war had lasted precisely 100 hours.

  17. Exit Strategy: Expel Iraq Only • Most Arab members believed the war was fought to restore one Arab country and not to destroy another. The United States also worried that extending the goal would have involved them in endless fighting.

  18. Casualties in First Gulf War • While estimates during the war had ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 Iraqis killed, Western military experts now agree that Iraq sustained between 20,000 and 35,000 casualties. The coalition losses were extremely light by comparison: 240 were killed, 148 of whom were American. The number of wounded totaled 776, of whom 458 were American.

  19. Consequences • UN economic sanctions against Iraq • UN weapons inspections • “No Fly” Zones in Iraq enforced by US Air Force • Saddam “boxed: in by the US military