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Saddam Hussein And the Crisis with Iraq PowerPoint Presentation
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Saddam Hussein And the Crisis with Iraq

Saddam Hussein And the Crisis with Iraq

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Saddam Hussein And the Crisis with Iraq

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  1. Saddam Hussein And the Crisis with Iraq

  2. The Topography of Iraq

  3. Ethnic Groups in Iraq

  4. Background: The History of Iraq

  5. Faisal, 1st King of Iraq • Created by the British in 1921 from three Ottoman provinces – Mosul, Baghdad, & Basra. • Prince Faisal fromArabia becomes king. • Iraq gains formalindependence in 1932.

  6. Iraq in the Inter-War Era • British maintained military bases. • The Iraq Petroleum Co. created (a joint British, French, & American business). • Iraqi oil helped the Allies during WW II.

  7. 1958 Revolution • Violent overthrow of the monarchy. • Creation of the Republic of Iraq. • Reform and dictatorship underPresident Abd al-Karim Qasim • purged western advisors. • centralized authority. • some inclusion of Kurdsand Shi’ites in thegovernment. • some land reform. • public welfare projects.

  8. 1963 & 1968 Coups • 1952  Baath Party created. • 1963  Baath forced out of the new government after the coup. • 1968  Baath Party coup led by Major General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr.  His deputy was Saddam Hussein. Violence becomes a vital part of Iraqi political culture!

  9. The Rise & Rule of Saddam Hussein

  10. A Young Saddam Hussein(1937 - ?) • Born in Tikrit. • Peasant family with influential army relatives. • Tribal society. • Joined BaathParty at 20. • Aided in failedassassination ofQasim in 1959. Saddam’s identity card when he was 10 years old.

  11. Saddam’s Early Political Career • After 1963 coup, he was put in charge ofthe security service for the Baath party. • 1979  he became president of Iraq when al-Bakr was persuaded to step down. Saddam at 17.

  12. A Cult of Personality

  13. A Cult of Personality 1989 Victory Arch

  14. Saddam’s Republican Guard The elite presidential security force.

  15. Oil Fields in Iraq

  16. Gassing the Kurds

  17. Ali Hasa al-Majid(“Chemical Ali”) I will kill them [the Kurds] all with chemical weapons!

  18. A Reign of Terror: Mass Graves of Saddam’s Victims

  19. The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

  20. August 2, 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait wanting control of oil

  21. Iraq Invades Kuwait August 2, 1990

  22. UN Resolution 678 UN Security Council: Iraq must be removed from Kuwait

  23. The War Begins (1/17/1991)

  24. U. S. Military Leaders General Colin Powell General NormanSchwarzkopf

  25. Range of Iraqi Missiles

  26. Saddam Lobs SCUD Missiles Israel & Saudi Arabia:The fear of bio-chemical attacks.

  27. “Operation Desert Storm”

  28. The Ground War

  29. Kuwait is Liberated

  30. Allies March to Baghdad Iraqis soldiers surrender. Iraqis cheer Allied forces.

  31. “Highway of Death”

  32. 400 Iraqi Oilfields on Fire An environmental disaster!

  33. Saddam suppress Rebellions • Shia’s take up arms against Saddam. • Kurds begin a revolt in hopes to trigger a coup. • Saddam crushes rebellions

  34. U. N. No-Fly Zones

  35. 1990s: Iraqi Targets

  36. Disarming Saddam (1991-2003)

  37. UN Resolution 687 • Formal Cease Fire • Iraq must destroy all or remove all WMD • On-site inspections (UNSCOM) • Trade Embargo of Iraq • Must not commit or support ant act of terrorism and no organization to act in its territory

  38. Material Unaccounted For • Nearly four tons of VX nerve agents • 20,000 liters of biological warfare agents • 15,000 shells for use in biological warfare • 6,000 chemical warfare bombs • Nuclear information

  39. Weapon Sites

  40. Trying to Disarm Saddam • Iraqis defy UNSCOM inspectors • Saddam's son-in-law reveals biological weapons program (1995) • UNSCOM Weapons Inspectors withdrawn from Iraq (1998) Video link

  41. Operation Desert Fox (1998)

  42. Oil for Food Program • Trade embargo hurt Iraqi civilians (children) • UN Resolution 986 • Sell limited amount oil for food • UN supervised • Huge corruption • Suffering continued

  43. Containment collapsing • Sanctions against Iraq becoming globally unpopular. • No inspectors in Iraq from 1998-2002 • UN Security Council agrees to overhaul the sanctions regime. (2002)

  44. “Axis of Evil”

  45. Crisis in Iraq Project • Iraq Study Group’s (Options) • Group Presentations • National Security Council Meeting • Chair-President • VP, Sec. State, Sec. Def, DNI, JCS • Decision of National Security Council