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Emerging Tensions between the B ritish and the Colonists

Emerging Tensions between the B ritish and the Colonists

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Emerging Tensions between the B ritish and the Colonists

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  1. Emerging Tensions between the British and the Colonists

  2. I. Emerging Tensions between British and Colonists • II. The French and Indian War

  3. Western Expansion • Mid-1700’s colonial population increases (almost doubles in 25 years) • Better birth rate • Rising immigration • New England gets overcrowded • People migrate west

  4. Native American and French Reaction • Native Americans were being forced father and farther west • Tribes fought with other tribes • Hatred grew towards the settlers

  5. The French disliked the intrusion of the settlers • Strengthened forts on Ohio river and in Detroit • Prepared for war

  6. The French and Indian War

  7. Causes of the War A. Rivalry between Britain and France 1. Fighting for land in NorthAmerica 2. Different ideas on colonization in the New World B. The Seven Years’ War – Britain and France were already fighting, this was just another battlefield!

  8. II. Fighting the War A. The Albany Plan of Union (united colonies for defense UNDER BRITISH RULE! – rejected) B. British and Americans use militia forces C. French use “Indian fighting”

  9. III. The War Ends A. British overwhelm the French and take all their land west of the Appalachians B. British siege and conquer Quebec C. Treaty of Paris (1763) 1. British get Canada and everything but New Orleans 2. British give Cuba to Spain in exchange for Florida

  10. IV. The War effects the colonists attitude toward Britain A. Disappointment in British military power B. Colonists felt disrespected by the British

  11. Part 2; Issues Behind the Revolution

  12. I. Changing British policies A. Pontiac’s Rebellion leads to the Proclamation of 1763 1. No settlements west of the Appalachians 2. Attempt to end conflicts with the Native Americans

  13. B. Britain’s financial problems lead to new taxes 1. Sugar Act (1764) 2. Quartering Act (1765) 3. Stamp Act (1765) 4. Declaratory Act (1766)

  14. II. The Boston Massacre (1770) A. British send troops to silence protests B. Main British opposition is in Boston C. British troops open fire on a crowd, five colonists die (CrispusAttucks first to die) D. John Adams defends the British soldiers in court and wins

  15. III. The Tea Act (1773) A. Save the British East India Company from bankruptcy B. Boston Tea Party 1. Ships loaded with tea not allowed to land 2. Colonists dressed like Indians dumped $10,000 worth of tea into Boston Harbor

  16. IV. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) of 1774 A. Took away power from colonial legislatures B. Granted part of colonial lands to Canada

  17. C. First Continental Congress • Delegates from every colony except Georgia • Renewed boycotts on British goods • Colonies were requested to form militias • Delegates appeal to the king attempting to settle problem

  18. Section 3; Ideas Behind the Revolution

  19. I. Ideas make a Revolution A. John Locke 1. Social Contract 2. People have a right to life, freedom, and property 3. People can overthrow a government when it becomes a threat to the people’s natural rights

  20. B. Thomas Paine 1. Common Sense C. The Enlightenment

  21. II. The Second Continental Congress • Convened in May 1775 B. Battles between those wanting Independence and those who do not Wanting: Samuel Adams, John Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, etc. Not wanting: John Dickinson (Olive Branch Petition)

  22. III. Drafting a Declaration of Independence • Committee: John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson B. Thomas Jefferson drafts the Declaration primarily on his own

  23. C. Jefferson gets many of his ideas from George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights

  24. IV. The Declaration of Independence (4 parts) A. Preamble 1. An Introduction 2. Explains the purpose

  25. B. Declaration of Rights 1. Based on Locke’s ideas 2. Men have natural rights 3. Social Contract

  26. C. List of Complaints 1. King George had violated the colonists rights 2. Government was based on law, not on the king’s desires

  27. D. Resolution 1. What the colonies wanted 2. “These United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States . . .”

  28. V. The Declaration is Adopted on July 4, 1776

  29. Fighting for Independence

  30. I. Fighting Begins • Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775) 1. The British try to seize the colonists weapons stockpile 2. Paul Revere’s ride 3. Patrick Henry’s speech, “Give me liberty or . . . “

  31. B. Ethan Allen and Ft. Ticonderoga C. The Battle of Bunker Hill 1. The British attack Patriot strong positions 2. The Patriots are defeated despite heavy British losses (Pyrric victory)

  32. II. George Washington takes control • He transforms the Patriot militia into the Colonial Army • Washington chases the British out of Boston

  33. C. Citizens take sides 1.One-third join the Patriots 2. One-third stay loyal to the British (Loyalist or Tories) 3. One-third attempt to remain neutral

  34. III. Strengths and Weaknesses

  35. A. British Strengths 1. Well-equipped, well-organized army 2. Best navy in the world 3. More allies (slaves, Native Americans, mercenaries, etc.)

  36. B. British Weaknesses 1. Unpopular war at home 2. Fighting in hostile territory

  37. C. American Strengths 1. Home field advantage 2. Defensive war 3. Fighting tactics learned in the French and Indian War 4. George Washington

  38. D. American Weaknesses 1. Creating an army from scratch 2. Army of volunteers

  39. IV. The War Continues A. The British drive the Americans out of New York (Washington and troops barely escape) B. American victories at Trenton and Princeton C. The British capture Philadelphia

  40. D. An American victory at Saratoga is the turning point of the war E. European allies finally join the American cause (France, Spain, Netherlands, etc.) 1. France’s Marquis de Lafayette and Johann de Kalb help lead American forces 2. German general Baron Friedrich von Steuben helps train American troops

  41. V. Who will win the war???

  42. Winning Independence • Americans Endure Hardships • Valley Forge – harsh winter; lack of food/supplies; over 1/3 of soldiers had no coat or shoes • Financing the war – no money • British blockade makes life hard for civilians too • Profiteering – colonists selling rare items at very high price!!

  43. Victories in the West and South • Americans capture British forts in Indiana and Illinois (against mainly Native Americans) • Yorktown, Virginia • Washington and Lafayette join forces in a siege of Yorktown • French navy drive off the British navy and blockade the British • General Cornwallis surrenders to Washington

  44. The Treaty of Paris • Treaty was signed four years after the end of fighting • Treaty provided six provisions: • Independence of the United States • Northern border of the U.S. was established (Canada) • Mississippi River was western border • Florida was returned to Spain (remember, it was gained during F&I war) • Britain would withdraw it’s troops • British loyalists would not be persecuted (yeah right)