e lecture 1 segregation and desegregation in american schools n.
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E-Lecture #1: Segregation and Desegregation in American Schools

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E-Lecture #1: Segregation and Desegregation in American Schools

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  1. E-Lecture #1:Segregation and Desegregation in American Schools

  2. How to change your view in Elluminate: To change your view and only see the PowerPoint slides, click the black arrow next to the button. Choose “Whiteboard Only”:

  3. Framing Questions (from syllabus): • How segregated were American schools in the past, and how segregated are they today, especially in urban areas? What explains these patterns? • What relationships exist between school segregation, on the one hand, and educational quality and equality, on the other? • How have people over time tried to address these relationships, and what are the costs and benefits of each approach? • How should the answers to these questions influence our work as urban educators?

  4. How segregated were American schools in the past, and how segregated are they today?

  5. Pause and think: Is the American school-age population: • Mostly white (>80%)? • Majority white (>50%)? • Plurality white, but no majority group?

  6. Pause and think: Is the American school-age population: • Mostly white (>80%)? • Majority white (>50%)? • Plurality white, but no majority group? Orfield and Lee (2006)

  7. Pause and think: Is the American school-age population: • Mostly white (>80%)? • Majority white (>50%)? • Plurality white, but no majority group? Orfield and Lee (2006)

  8. Percentage of Public School Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity • 2003 • Whites 58% • Blacks 17% • Hispanics 19% • Other 5%

  9. Percentage of Public School Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity • 1968 2003 • Whites 80% 58% • Blacks 14% 17% • Hispanics 5% 19% • Other 1% 5%

  10. Pause and think: Do you predict that American schools today are overall more, less, or equally segregated than they were in 1970? How about in 1990? • Percentage of Public School Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity • 1968 2003 • Whites 80% 58% • Blacks 14% 17% • Hispanics 5% 19% • Other 1% 5%

  11. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  12. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  13. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  14. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  15. 10 of top 15 states not in South Orfield and Lee (2006)

  16. 10 of top 15 states not in South Orfield and Lee (2006)

  17. 10 of top 15 states not in South Orfield and Lee (2006)

  18. 10 of top 15 states not in South Orfield and Lee (2006)

  19. 10 of top 15 states not in South Orfield and Lee (2006)

  20. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  21. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  22. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  23. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  24. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  25. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  26. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  27. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  28. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  29. Orfield and Lee (2006)

  30. Pause and think: Based on your readings for today and prior knowledge from other sources, what do you think accounts for these patterns?

  31. “The distinction between de jure and de facto segregation is actually much less clear than the courts have made it seem. Segregation resulted in part from political choices such as zoning rules, public agency mortgage guidelines, highway location decision, mass transit access, and above all from school district boundaries and the placement of schools.” (Hochschild and Scovronick 2003: 37)

  32. Two possible causes (or results?) • Residential segregation patterns • Court cases and judicial decisions at the state and federal level How segregated were American schools in the past, and how segregated are they today, especially in urban areas? What explains these patterns?

  33. Residential Segregation Patterns

  34. Residential Segregation Patterns in NYC and LA—A Longitudinal View: Social Explorer: NYC 1910-2000 (African-American population) NYC 1910-2000 (White population) LA 1940-2000

  35. Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation in Boston, 2000 The Boston Foundation Indicators Project

  36. The Boston Foundation Indicators Project

  37. The Boston Foundation Indicators Project

  38. The Boston Foundation Indicators Project

  39. The Boston Foundation Indicators Project

  40. Key State and FederalJudicial Decisions

  41. School Segregation: Key Court Cases

  42. School Segregation: Key Court Cases Roberts v. Boston (1850)

  43. School Segregation: Key Court Cases Roberts v. Boston (1850) Massachusetts Supreme Court Decided: Segregated schools in Boston were legal

  44. School Segregation: Key Court Cases Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Roberts v. Boston (1850)

  45. School Segregation: Key Court Cases Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Roberts v. Boston (1850) US Supreme Court Decided: 14th Amendment permitted “separate but equal” public accommodations: “Laws permitting, and even requiring their separation [of races]… do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other…”

  46. School Segregation: Key Court Cases Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Roberts v. Boston (1850) NAACP-led court cases (1920s-1950s)

  47. School Segregation: Key Court Cases State and federal courts: local, district, appelate, supreme Challenged equality of segregated black hospitals, schools (esp. higher ed), salary structures, other public services, as compared to white counterparts Deliberate strategy to get inequality (in practice, not in theory) of segregated accommodations established in legal precedents Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Roberts v. Boston (1850) NAACP-led court cases (1920s-1950s)