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Figurative Language

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Figurative Language

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  1. Figurative Language

  2. Figurative Language • The term Figurative (figure of speech) means a word or group of words mean something more than their ordinary meaning. Example: When you call your little brother a “pig,” you don’t really mean he’s a pig. Do you? When your mom says your room looks like a “pig sty,” she’s using figurative language. Your room might be really messy, but it’s not a pig sty. Is it?

  3. Literal • The term literal means the word or group of words has its normal definition. • Example: • When your teacher asks you to “draw a conclusion,” she doesn’t mean she wants you to draw a picture. If that’s what you think, you’re being too literal. Drawing a conclusion means to make sense of something or to form an opinion.

  4. Simile • A Simile is figure of speech that compares two unlike things, using the words “like” or “as.” • Examples: • The soles of his bare feet looked as black as barbecue coals. • The girl had jaws like a wolverine. • The dinner gathering was as quiet as a chess match.

  5. Simile • Questions to consider when reading a simile: • What is being compared? • Why are these two things being compared? • What is the effect or meaning of the comparison?

  6. The soles of his bare feet looked as black as barbecue coals. • What is being compared? • Why are these two things being compared? • What is the effect or meaning of the comparison?

  7. The girl had jaws like a wolverine. • What is being compared? • Why are these two things being compared? • What is the effect or meaning of the comparison?

  8. The dinner gathering was as quiet as a chess match. • What is being compared? • Why are these two things being compared? • What is the effect or meaning of the comparison?

  9. Metaphor • A metaphor is a comparison between two unlike things without using the words “like” or “as.” • Many times metaphors will use “to be” verbs to make the comparison: • Is • Am • Are • Was • Were

  10. Metaphor • Examples: • I am a shark when it comes to poker. • He’s a book worm. • They are peas in a pod. • The sea was a smooth sheet of glass. • Her legs were rubber, and her arms were noodles. • What is being compared? • Why are these two things being compared? • What is the effect or meaning of the comparison?

  11. Extended Metaphor • When an author continues the metaphor beyond one sentence, it is called an extended metaphor. What is being compared throughout the poem “Fog”? Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. --Carl Sandburg

  12. Personification • Another type of metaphor is personification. Personification is when a lifeless object, an animal or an idea is made to act like a person. • What human qualities are given to the wind in this poem? The Wind The wind stood up and gave a shout. He whistled on his fingers and Kicked the withered leaves about And thumped the branches with his hand And said that he'd kill and kill, And so he will and so he will. - James Stephens

  13. Hyperbole • An exaggeration for special, often humorous, effect • "I was helpless. I did not know what in the world to do. I was quaking from head to foot, and could have hung my hat on my eyes, they stuck out so far." • -Mark Twain, from "Old Times on the Mississippi”

  14. Allusion • A reference to a well-known person, place, thing, or event. • Barack Obama alludes to both Jesus and Superman in this quote. • Many popular allusions come from The Bible, Shakespeare, and Greek/Roman mythology. • Barack Obama's Humorous Allusion • "I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father, Jorel, to save the Planet Earth."

  15. Idioms • An idiom or an idiomatic expression is a word, group of words, or saying that has figurative meaning. • Examples: • Shoot off one’s mouth • Let the cat out of the bag • Stick out one’s neck

  16. Puns • A pun is a “play on words” that has two meanings—one that is literal and the other that is figurative. • Examples: • Writing with a broken pencil is pointless. • I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it hit me.

  17. Review • What is the difference between figurative and literal language? • How is a simile the same and different from a metaphor? • How can you tell if a metaphor is an extended metaphor? • What is personification? • What are some examples of hyperbole? • What is an allusion? • Why would idioms make learning English difficult? • What is a pun?