CHAPTER 23 Industrialization and its Discontents
The Industrialization of Europe and the West: 1760–1914 • Industrialization began in Britain, which had several advantages. • Britain had abundant coal and iron reserves. • Larger global network due to colonies, that provides capital for new businesses. • Thriving merchant class supported by Parliament’s legislation. • Population doubled from 1600 to 1700 to 9 million, and many moved to cities. • New cities meant new markets for luxury goods. • Calico Acts, 1700 and 1720, prohibited cheap popular cotton from India and led to its production in England.
Britain’s wages were high, making use of labor saving machines necessary. • Scientific revolution centered in England, especially in practical application. • Scientific societies mixed scientists with inventors and experimenters.
1700–1800 over 1,000 inventions, many for textiles, were developed. • Flying shuttle, • Spinning jenny. and • Water frame sped up spinning and weaving. • Power loom, 1787, still could not produce enough textiles for market.
Large machines and transportation of fuel and materials, led to large factories. • Steam engine allowed factories to move to cities, not tied to running water. • Locating in urban centers gave access to roads, canals, and railroads. • Factories drew workers, dramatically increasing population of cities.
“The Rocket” 1829
Railroads combined a Watt steam engine with a moving carriage. • George Stephenson built first freight line 1829 and first passenger line 1830. • From 1840 to 1870 miles of rail had increased 900% due to popularity. • Railroads moved bulk commodities, and helped move goods for sale. • Railroad became its own industry, employing thousands.
Robert Fulton, American engineer, built first steam-powered riverboat. • Used on rivers in America, and then in England, then in transatlantic crossings. • 1816 steamship crossed the Atlantic in half the time of sailing. • In 1830s British East India Company began to use steamships for maritime trade with India. • First military use in the Anglo-Chinese Opium War, 1839–1842.
Industrialism spread to Belgium, northern France, and northern Germany by 1830s. • Changes since Napoleonic wars prepared them for industrialization • population increases, • large supplies of coal. • Railways were brought in, • increased transportation and • allowed for more trade.
First water-powered textile factory in the United States in 1793, in Rhode Island. • American Civil War interrupted industrialization but increases after war. • By 1914 the United States was the largest industrial economy in the world. • Aided by growth of railroads, • 2,800 miles in 1840 • 53,000 miles in 1870.
Henry Bessemer, 1856, develops a method of mass-producing high grade cheap steel. • Germany will take the lead in world steel production by 1914. • Able to use Britain’s industrialization as a model, build upon it. • Steel was better than iron because it was harder and lighter. • used in railroads, • construction of skyscrapers, and • ships.
Chemicals were also a part of the industrial revolution. • First commercial dye was created in 1856, followed by artificial silk (rayon). • Commercial production begins in the 1890’s • Synthesizing ammonia led to weapons used in World War I. • Alfred Nobel invents dynamite and Charles Goodyear creates vulcanized rubber.
Electrical power was known by 1850 but not widely used until Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla Coil and alternating current (AC). • Led to the invention of generators, motors, transformers, and to power plants. • Electricity important in the telegraph, first used in 1840s by Samuel Morse. • First transatlantic cables were laid in 1858, common by 1866. • Followed by invention of the telephone in 1876, by Alexander Graham Bell. • Heinrich Hertz discovered that electromagnetic radiation made radio waves. • GuglielmoMarconi created the first device in 1890s to use radio waves.
Gasoline was produced as a byproduct of liquid petroleum refined into kerosene. • In 1864 Siegfried Marcus linked internal combustion engine to a cart. • Lighter than steam engines. • Marcus invented several other parts used in gasoline-powered vehicles. • Internal combustion engines used in a rigid airship by von Zeppelin in 1900. • Led to the invention of the airplane by 1903.
The “Motorwagon” patented by Karl Benz, 1885