PORKthe Other White Meat Original Power Point Created by Randal Cales Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002
Fresh Meats Pork Chops Steaks Ground Beef Chicken Turkey Processed Meats Hot Dogs Luncheon Meats Ham Smoked Sausage Beef Jerky Marinated Meats What is your favorite food?
Fresh Meats No Salt Added No Flavorings Added No Preservatives Added Cured Meats Salt may be added Flavor normally added Preservatives normally added Water may be added What’s The Difference?
Types of Meat Preservation • Drying- Removal of water from meat. • Heating- Kills bacteria if temperatures reaches 160 degrees. • Refrigeration- Slows the growth of bacteria • Freezing- 20 degrees below zero eliminates bacterial growth • Acidification- Low pH retards bacterial growth
Types of Meat Preservation 6. Irradiation- Low levels kill bacteria in fresh meat products • Canning- Packaging meat into sealed containers and heating meat to kill bacteria • Curing- Compounds make meats inhospitable to microbial growth. • Salting and Sugaring- Prevents microbial growth • Smoking- Forms antibacterial chemicals to the meats surface
The 5 Factors in the Curing Process • Preservation • Flavor • Color • Tenderness • Yield
Preservation 3 main ingredients to preservation process • Salt • Sugar • Nitrite
Flavor Flavor is the primary reason consumers purchase meat more than once Salt- Predominant flavor in most processed meats Sugar- Used to reduce the harshness of the salt flavor Nitrite- Provide a characteristic flavor you recognize as a ham flavor Smoked- Contains a smoke flavoring rather than being traditionally smoked
Color and Tenderness Color-If nitrate is used the meat will take on a distinctive red color. Tenderness-The type of process will affect the tenderness of the meat. Examples: Jerky the meat is dry and tough Ham usually fairly tender
Yield When meat products are cooked and smoked, some water and juices are lost, making the product weigh less, thus reducing the product’s value. • Moisture- Helps prevent moisture loss during cooking and smoking • Increased Profits- Adds weight to products increasing the price of the product. • Curing- Used to deliver cure ingredients into the fresh meat prior to curing.
The Curing Process Non-Meat Ingredients • Not meat!!! Ingredients • Increase product yield • Aid in color, texture or flavor development • Increase product shelf-life • Increase process efficiency
Water One of the most important ingredients Why? • Economically beneficial • Processing aid • Allowed 25-30lbs per 100 lbs of meat • Allowed 3% for fresh sausage Functions • Optimizes Juices • Optimizes finished costs • Dissolves ingredients • Controls Temperature
SaltEssential Ingredient Functions • Extracts salt soluble proteins • Adds flavor • Improves water binding • Is Bacteriostatic Modern Cures • Normally contain 1.5 to 3 percent salt • Country style hams often have more than 17% salt
Phosphates Functions • Helps hold water and juices in meat products • Helps the product from drying out • Controls pH level • Helps reduce lipid oxidation Modern Cures • 0.05-0.5 percents in finished product
NitriteSodium or Potassium Functions • Acts as a cure that adds color and some flavor • Bacteriostat- inhibits C. botulinum • Acts as an antioxidant Modern Cures • Concentrations are 156 ppm in most products • Concentrations are 120 ppm in bacon • Commercial cures are 6.25% nitrite and 93.75% salt
Cure AcceleratorsSodium Erythorbate and Ascorbate Functions • Accelerates reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide • Speeds up processing time • Acts as an antioxidant Modern Cures • Allowed 7/8 ounces per 100 lbs of meat
Sweeteners Function • Adds flavor • Keeps moisture in product • Enhances browning • Adds cost to product Modern Forms Sweetness • Cane Sugar 100% • Dextrose 70% • Corn Syrup/Solids 50%
Spices and Seasonings Functions • Adds Flavoring • Serves as an Antioxidant • Adds Color to the product Modern Forms • Are Natural • Are Soluble (Oils)