Creating Effective Behavioral Intervention Plans for Aggressive Children Portions of this presentation was developed by Richard Van Acker, Ed.D. (University of Illinois – Chicago), Lynn Boreson (WDPI) and Tom Petterton (CESA 12) Trudie Hughes, Ph.D. University of Minnesota – Duluth
Characteristics of Aggressive Youth • What is aggressive behavior? • Natural response for young children who have not learned how to control their bodies or their environment. • Environment and Genes contribute to aggressive behavior. • The issue is how anger, power and competitiveness is expressed by an individual child. • No single factor can predict who is likely to exhibit aggressive and violent behavior.
Name calling Gossiping Spreading rumors Encouraging others to reject or exclude someone Threatening or intimidating others Malicious teasing or taunting Pushing Hitting Slapping Biting Kicking Hair pulling Stabbing Shooting Rape Aggressive behaviors include:
Warning signs http://www.aboutourkids.org/aboutout/articles/aggrssion.html
Things to Remember • When behavior is a concern, no matter the disability, do a FBA. • Behavior interventions are to be positive. • Behavior interventions are to teach replacement skills not just to eliminate the behavior(s). • Include interventions and/or Behavior Intervention Plan in the IEP. • Follow and implement the IEP.
Behavior interventions/ Behavior plans required when: • Students has behavior(s) that interfere with his learning or the learning of others. • Conditional procedures are proposed. • Behavior was a manifestation of the disability. • FBA was completed. • IEP team determines it is appropriate.
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANS • Current & Proposed federal regulations – • IEP team to consider “strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports” to address the behavior of a child whose behavior impeded his or her learning or that of others.
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT and the LAW • Key Federal Legislation • 1964 Civil Rights Act • 1965 Elementary & Secondary Education Act • 1973 Rehabilitation Act • 1975 Educational for All Handicapped Children Act • 1986 Part H added
Key Provision in Minnesota • “This Policy is intended to encourage the use of positive approaches to behavioral interventions. The objective of any behavioral intervention must be that pupils acquire appropriate behaviors and skills. It is critical that behavioral intervention programs focus on skill acquisition rather than merely behavior reduction or elimination.
Key Provision con’t • “Behavioral intervention policies, programs, or procedures must be designed to enable a pupil to benefit from an appropriate, individualized educational program as well as develop skills to enable them to function as independently as possible in their communities.” M.R.3525.0850
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT • MN legal definition includes: • “…process to gather information…” • “…description of problem behaviors…” • “…identification of events, times and situations that predict… the behavior…” • “…identifies the antecedents, consequences and reinforcers that maintain the behavior…”
School response • Typically recognized as bullying behavior • Typically punitive & may be excessively harsh • Typically not consistent in application • Action of school may be defined by social-economic status of student
Manifestation Determination must be conducted when: • A parent requests, • Student is suspended for 5 or more consecutive days, • Student is suspended for more than 10 cumulative days in a school year, • A removal for disciplinary reasons constitutes a change of placement, • The district proposes to exclude or expel.
MANIFESTATION DETERMINATION • Must review student’s file, IEP, teacher observations and relevant information from the parents and then determine • If the behavior in question “was caused by, or had a direct and substantial relationship to, the child’s disability” • If the behavior was the “direct result” of the district’s failure to implement the IEP.
Common Functions of Behavior • Attention • Escape • Power/control • Tangible reward • Peer affiliation • Justice/revenge
What typically happens when we intervene? • It takes time to change behavior • Behavior gets worse before it gets better • Spontaneous recovery • Low level behavior can escalate
Purpose of a BIP • A BIP is to spell out what behaviors are being targeted for change and how change will be handled
When do you need a BIP? • A student with disabilities displays behavior that interferes with his/her learning or that of others (special factor) • A student’s behavior results in a change of placement
Base the BIP on a Functional Behavioral Assessment(FBA) • Define target behavior • Develop a hypothesis as to the function of the behavior • Collect data(direct and indirectly) • Validate the function and key context variables • Triangulate data • Data analysis • Develop the BIP
What is Functional Behavioral Assessment • Process for gathering information that can be used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral supports
Components of FBA • 1. A clear description of the problem behaviors • Identification of events, times, and situations that predict occurrence and nonoccurrence of the behavior • 3. Identifies the antecedents, consequences and reinforcers that maintain the behavior • 4. Identify possible positive alternative behaviors • 5. Include a variety of data collections methods • 6. Development of hypotheses and summary statements regarding behavior patterns
Required elements for BIPs • Description of previously tried interventions • Clear definitions of targeted behavior • Description of the interventions that will be used • Measurable description of the behavior changes you expect to see • Description of how the success of the interventions will be measured • Evaluation plan – a schedule for when/how often the plan will be reviewed and how information will be shared with home and school • Description of a crisis plan
Support desired alternatives that allow student to meet their needs Focus on positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports Make the current undesired behavior less effective in meeting the student’s need Behavior Intervention Plans...
Define observable behavior • Look or sound like? • Student says or does? • How often? • How intense? • Danger level? • What do you want instead?
Appropriate Consequences • Nature of surface behavior has little to do with selecting an appropriate consequence • The function of behavior should direct the consequences • For example: Disruption of the lesson. What might be a typical responses?
Peer Consequences • Be wary of consequences that group students w/ challenging behaviors • Instructional & pro-social consequences
Evaluating the BIP • Systematic review • Data collection • Communication • Criteria for success (long and short term)
2 Components of a BIP • Teaching plan • Crisis plan
Teaching Plan • Definitions • Prevention • The best way to address undesirable behavior is to prevent it from happening in the first place! • Intervention • Stopping the behavior once it starts but before it gets out of control • Timeout, in-school suspensions, response-cost • Skill building • Replacement or alternative behaviors • Social skills • General skills • Problem solving • Self management
Crisis Plan: In an Emergency…. • De-escalate • Protect
Potential Potholes • No plan • No basis for plan • Plan not followed • No data on effectiveness
Annual Goals • Reasonably be accomplished in 12 months • Observable and measurable outcomes to demonstrate progress Example: Brenda will work independently and attend to a given task during a 20-minute school activity with only 1 teacher prompt for 7 of 10 class sessions.
Objectives/Benchmarks(Minimum of 2 per goal) • Include: • Identify learner • Identify target behavior • Conditions • Identify criteria in measurable terms • Outcome • Accuracy (be realistic) • Time allotted / time frame • Example: Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 1 minute after instructions are given and will work continuously for 8 minutes by the end of the 1st grading period. • Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 45 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 12 minutes by the end of the 2nd grading period.
How will you identify a need? Document current level of functioning? Develop a measurable goal & at least 2 measurable obj./benchmarks? Self- esteem Lack of organizational skills Non-compliance Anger management Disrespect Stereotypic behavior Off-task Out of seat Teasing & taunting Try some…
Additional Resources www.dpi.state.wi.us/dpi/dlsea/hmtopics.html www.pbis.org www.ttac.odu.edu www.state.ky.us/agencies/behave/homepage.html www.cecp.air.org www.calstat.org/annotated_plan.pdf
More Resources www.disciplinehelp.com www.BehaviorAdvisor.com www.sopriswest.com www.hes-inc.com