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Spoken Communication : Some Basic Principles

Spoken Communication : Some Basic Principles

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Spoken Communication : Some Basic Principles

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  1. Spoken Communication : Some Basic Principles

  2. Spoken Communication • Do you have SOMETHING to say?

  3. Spoken Communication

  4. North Bihar, “the Region of Deluge” • Land of Rivers – Ghaghra, Son, Gandak, Kosi. • 76 % of the population (50 m approx.) living under recurring floods • About 73.06% of 94160 Sq. Km is affected.  • Highest number of floods in the last 30 years

  5. The Region of Deluge

  6. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 2”

  7. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 3”

  8. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 4”

  9. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 5”

  10. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 6”

  11. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 7”

  12. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 8”

  13. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 9”

  14. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 10”

  15. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 11”

  16. A Bridge on “The Baagmati 12”

  17. Six Ganges Alaknanda, Dhauliganga Nandakini Pindar Mandakini Bhagirathi

  18. Five Confluences Vishnuprayag: Dhauliganga+ Alaknanda; Nandprayag: Nandakini joins; Karnaprayag : Pindar joins; Rudraprayag: Mandakinijoins; Devprayag: Bhagirathi + Alaknanda

  19. 250 Km in the Himalayas: 10%

  20. T E H R I D A M 260m high, 575 m long, 20 m crest, 1128 m wide base Creates a reservoir of 52sq km Installed Power Capacity : 1,000 MW (Addnl1,000 MW thru’ pump storage)

  21. Tehri dam is located in a seismic zone, 6.8 magnitude e quin Oct 1991, Epicenterwas only 500km away Dam can survive an e quof 8.4 Over 100,000 people displaced.

  22. Since 2005, filling of the reservoir has led to a reduced flow of Bhagirathi water from the normal 1,000 cubic feet per second (28 m3/s) to a mere 200 cubic feet per second (5.7 m3/s).

  23. Beside the Ganga are located 29 cities with over 1,00,000 people , 23 cities with population between 50,000 and 1,00,000, and about 48 smaller towns. The Ganga Action Plan is preparing to treat 882 mldout of 1340 mld of wastewater in 25 big towns/cities

  24. Approved outlays for the GAP-I and the GAP-II were Rs. 462.04 crore and Rs. 1276.25 crore respectively (in) April 1997.

  25. The river bed is rising all through its length. At Patna, depth was 10 m, breadth 2 km even in summer. Now it is hardly 3m deep and less than a km wide. The river has become shallow and narrow!

  26. In 1852, EIC considered and rejected Sir Arthur Cotton’s plan for Farakka Barrage. The Bengal Chamber of Commerce took it up again and rejected it again in the 1930s.

  27. FarakkaBarrage :roughly 16.5 km from the border with Bangladesh. Construction began in 1961, operations began in April, 1975. The barrage is about 2.25 km long, has 123 gates. The feeder canal is about 40km long.

  28. The barrage was built to divert up to 1,100m3/s of water from the Ganga into the Hooghly River through a 40 km long canal from January to June, to flush the silt at the Port of Kolkata.

  29. Behind the barrage, the bed has risen over 7 meters, or 23 feet. Dredginge here, so that ships could use the river as usual, would require a convoy of trucks stretching 34 times the equator, and a 14 lane highway to the Bay of Bengal.

  30. The silt has caused water hyacinth to rise and block the gates. At least 56 gates do not open, blocked by water hyacinth stretching for over 50 metres.

  31. Dredging has increased three-fold, yet nobody today uses a vessel of less than 50 K Tonnes. Tankers and supertankersare at least twice as big. Modern ships do not go to Kolkata. They berth in Haldia.

  32. Farakkahas ruined an entire economy. Ships used to bring tea or jute to Kolkata’s factories, finished goods were brought from there up to Allahabad. Now, no boat of deeper draft can sail it .

  33. The Ganga rebounds and sets off a current 195 km back upstream. Because the Ganga hits the barrage at a slant, it seeks outlets sideways and underground causing massive erosions. Villages have disappeared in Bengal.

  34. In Bihar, the back rush has caused the slope of the river to fill up progressively backwards. The Kosi has agradient of 10 m in the Himalayas, but in Bihar, nearer the Ganga, it decreases to 6cm. Sediments settle for ever!

  35. Flowing through Tibet, Nepal and Bihar, the Kosi is 729 km long, descends from a height of 20,000 ft. The Kosi alluvial fan is one of the largest in the world.

  36. 2008 : 15th June (160mm at Chanpatia, 141 mm at Sikanderpur and 92.2 mm at Khagaria) There was a breach near Kusshavillage in Nepal on 18th August 2008. The Kosi was flowing at nearly 140,000 cusecs.