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## A Test Preparation Manual for the Skilled Trades

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**Pre-Apprentice Training**A Test Preparation Manual for the Skilled Trades**The Authors**Jack Martin Experience includes: • Apprentice Plumber • Apprentice Draftsman • Classroom Teacher • Vocational Counselor • Director of Job Placement • Vice President of Baker College • Labor Management Consultant Currently: President of Jack Martin & Associates**The Authors**Mary Serich: Teacher of Pre-Apprentice Training • Experience includes: • Delphi Skill Center Trainer • A. Computers • B. Blueprint Reading • C. Electronics • D. Math • E. Science • 2) Instructor for Train-the-Trainer certification • 3) B.A. in both Science and Math, M.A. in Technical Training**Presentation Goals**• To understand the Apprenticeship system and how it works. • To learn the skills required to get an Apprenticeship. • To help students prepare for jobs in the skilled trades.**Definition**“Apprenticeship is a system of training that combines on the job and classroom learning in order to acquire Journeyperson status.”**Registered Apprenticeable Trades**"900" According to the Department of Labor Office of Apprenticeship - 2007**Industrial Trades**• Mold Maker • Pattern Maker • Pipefitter • Stationary Engineer • Sheet Metal Worker • Tin Smith • Tool Designer • Tool Maker • Welder • Auto/Truck Repair • Die Designer • Die Maker • Draftsman • Electrician • Machinist • Machine Repair • Millwright • Model Maker**Construction Trades**• Iron Worker/Structural Steel • Millwright • Operating Engineer • Plasterer • Painter/Drywall Finisher • Plumber/Pipefitter • Refrigeration & Air Conditioning • Roofer/Waterproofer • Sheet Metal Worker • Sprinkler Fitter • Tile, Marble & Terrazzo Mason • Asbestos Worker • Boilermaker • Bricklayer • Carpet/Latherer/Floor Layer • Cement Mason • Construction Craft Laborer • Drywall Finisher • Electrician • Elevator Constructor • Glaziers/Glass Worker**History of Apprenticeship**• The worlds second oldest profession • Code of Hammurabi • Benjamin Franklin • Keep it in the family • Women and minorities need not apply • National Apprenticeship law – 1937 • The modern Apprentice**Preparation**Can you think of a skilled trade that does not require any math? A - All trades require basic math skills B - Some trades require advanced math C - All trades require measurement skills D - All trades require reading ability**Required Basic Math Skills**• Addition • Subtraction • Multiplication • Division • Fractions • Decimals**Advanced Math Skills**• Algebra • Geometry • Trigonometry • Graphic Math**Measurement Skills**• Read a ruler in both English and Metric units • Convert from fraction measurements to decimal measurements and visa versa • Round off measurements accurately**Reading Skills**• Reading comprehension for speed and accuracy • Technical reading for charts, graphs, estimates, work orders, purchase orders, blueprints and problem solving.**Shop Math**Algebra Geometry Drafting Electronics Machine Shop Wood Shop Computers Welding Auto Shop Building Trades STRA-School to registered Apprenticeship Pre-Apprentice Training Suggested High School Courses**Selection**I. Most trades require a High School Diploma or GED II. At least 16 – 18 years old III. Test (not all trades require a test) A. Technical Reading B. Basic Math C. Algebra and Geometry D. Mechanical Comprehension E. Spatial Relations IV. Some require drug testing V. Some require a valid drivers license VI. All use an interview process**Training**Apprenticeship – “The other four year degree” • Classroom / College credit • On-the –job / hands on • Usually taught by a skilled trades person • Monitored by the US Office of Apprenticeship**Wages**• 50% to 75% of Journeypersons starting wage • $120,000 during Apprenticeship • Starting Journeyperson $45,000 to $65,000 • With overtime up to $100,000**Journeyperson Status**• Above average pay • Good job security • Job mobility • Career satisfaction • Possible self employment • Possible to own the company**History of Pre-Apprentice Training**• 1964, Civil Rights legislation put pressure on • companies to improve their skilled trades • hiring practices. • 1968, Flint Michigan, fewer than 2% of all skilled trades • where females and people of color. • As result, there was a need to • provide entry level job training • and test preparation skills.**Preparing Minorities and Females Applicants for the**Apprenticeship Entrance Exam The Mott Adult Education program of the Flint Community Schools was asked to help prepare minority and female applicants for entry into the General Motors apprenticeship program. Jack Martin was the program coordinator.**First Course Content**• Used five different textbooks costing more than $75 • per student. These books included: • Basic Math • Algebra • Geometry • Blueprint Reading • Mechanical Comprehension • The students participated in forty-five hours of • classroom study.**First Class Results**• Taught by journeyman machinist John Beach. • Class was limited to minorities and females. • Twenty-two students participated in the class and all successfully completed the apprenticeship test battery and interview process. • Of the original twenty-two, 17 became apprentices and 15 completed the apprenticeship program becoming journeymen skilled trades workers. • Since this initial class, approximately 200,000 students have successfully used the workbook.**Consolidated Workbook**• In 1968, a workbook was written by Jack Martin and John Beach consolidating all five subjects into one book. • Many instructors contributed to revising and improving the content. • In 1993, Mary Serich did a complete revision and update adding a lot of new content including: • 1. Reading speed and comprehension • 2. Ratios, proportions, and percents • 3. Graphic math**2005 Content**New Chapters Added by Mary Serich • How to Read a Ruler • Basic Electricity • Revised Mechanical Comprehension • Technical Reading**Chapter 1 The Apprenticeship System**• Apprenticeship History • Career Development • Industrial Apprenticeship Programs • Construction Apprenticeship Programs • Related Classroom Instruction • How to Select an Apprenticeship • How to Apply for an Apprenticeship • How to Improve your Chances of Being Hired**Chapter 2 Whole Numbers**• A review of basic math skills including : • Addition • Subtraction • Multiplication • Division • The emphasis is NOT on learning the • skills, but increasing speed and efficiency. • Most mistakes made on timed tests are in the basic • arithmetic. We tend to speed through the simple stuff. These careless simple mistakes can make the difference • between passing the test or not.**Whole Numbers Practice Test Answers**3) 800 x 9 = a) 7200 b) 8100 c) 7400 d) none of the above 4) 40 ÷ 3 = a) 13.13 b) 13.03 c) 13 1/3 d) none of the above 1) 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 + 2 + 1 = a) 23 b) 24 c) 15 d) none of the above 2) 388 – 99 = a) 287 b) 288 c) 289 d) none of the above**5) Reduce to lowest terms:**a) 34/38 b) 17/19 c) 5/3 d) none of the above 34 38 Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals Practice Test Answer Fractions are a good example of, “If you don’t use it you lose it”.**Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals**Practice Test Answer 6) Arrange the following socket wrenches in order from largest to smallest: 1/2 , 3/16 , 5/8 , 1/4 a) 5/8, 1/2, 1/4, 3/16 b) 3/16, 1/2, 5/8, 1/4 c) 1/2, 3/16, 5/8, 1/4 d) none of the above**Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals**Practice Test Answer 25 32 5 8 7) Solve and reduce a) 5/32 b) 5/8 c) 1 1/4 d) none of the above**Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals**Practice Test Answer 8) Arrange these decimals in order from smallest to largest. .76, .7, .076, .071 a) .76, .7, .076, .071 b) .7, .071, .076, .76 c) .071, .076, .7, .76 d) none of the above Think of decimal numbers in terms of money (something we are very familiar with) and they make sense.**A**B C D Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler English & Metric Practice Test Answer 9) Write the English measurements indicated on the following diagram: (Reduce answers when possible) A = 3/4" B = 1 5/16" C = 1 13/16" D = 2 5/8"**Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler continued**• Chapter 4 also includes: • Reading Metric measurements • Solving problems with fraction measurements • A) Addition • B) Subtraction • C) Multiplication • D) Division • Calculation of dimensions on diagrams**Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents**Practice Test Answer Ratio 10) A local factory employs 50 salaried workers and 575 hourly workers. What is the ratio of salaried workers to the total number of workers in the plant? 575 Hourly + 50 Salaried = 625 Total employees Salary: Total employees = 50:625 = 2:25 a) 2 : 25 b) 2 : 23 c) 1 : 75 d) none of the above**Proportion**11) A vehicle traveling at a rate of 110 miles in 2 hours will travel how many miles in 12 hours? 110 miles x miles 110 mi x 12 hr = 1320 mi hr 1320 mi hr ÷ 2 = 660 mi 2 hours 12 hours Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents Practice Test Answer a) 330 miles b) 420 miles c) 680 miles d) none of the above**Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents**Practice Test Answer Percent • If daily production of a stamping plant is 136,000 parts and the average amount of scrap is 3%, how many bad parts are produced in one day? Well, 1% of 136,000 is 1360, so 3 times 1360 is 4080. 3% of 136,000 = 4080 bad parts per day a) 4080 bad parts b) 408 bad parts c) 4800 bad parts d) none of the above**Chapter 6 Directed Numbers**Practice Test Answer 13) Solve and reduce a) – 1/8 b) -1/4 c) -1/2 d) none of the above +2 +16 -1 +2**Chapter 7 Algebra**Practice Test Answer 14) Solve for C: 4 + C = 10 a) 14 b) 4 c) 6 d) none of the above**3**dn y x y x y 0 8 4 4 -1 9 x Chapter 7 Algebra Also Included in the Algebra Chapter: 1) Equations (solving for an unknown) : n 4 2) Formulas: n y x d 3) Plotting points, graphing an equation: Draw the graph of x + y = 8. n =12**2a**Chapter 7 Algebra continued • Word Problems: • Approximately how many 12” x 12” tiles are required to cover a 10’ x 10’ floor? • 10’ x 10’ = 100 sqft • One 12” x 12” tile covers 1 sqft, so you need at least 100 tiles • Powers and roots: • 4a3b2 • 2a2b2 • Factoring equations and the FOIL method to solve trinomials: • multiply (5x – 2)(2x + 1) = 10x2 + x – 2 • Solving number and letter sequences: • 7 – 8 – 22 – 9 – 10 – 21 – 11 – 12 – 9x2 3x 16 4 20**Chapter 7 Algebra**Practice Test Answer 15) Three consecutive numbers total 12. What is the lowest of the three numbers? x + x + 1 + x + 2 = 12 3x + 3 = 12 3x = 9 x = 3 a) 3 b) 2 c) 6 d) none of the above**Chapter 7 Algebra**Practice Test Answer 16) Multiply: (y – z)(y + z) a) 2y – 2z b) y2 – z2 c) 2y+ 2z d) none of the above**Chapter 7 Algebra**Practice Test Answer 17) What is the next number in the sequence? 25 – 100 – 300 – 600 – 600 - ____ a) 0 b) 1200 c) 800 d) none of the above**B**C A Chapter 8 Geometry • Contents include: • Definitions • Points, lines, and angles • Angles and Degrees • Polygons • Geometric Propositions If < CAB = 45° Find < CBA < CBA = 45°**Chapter 9 Graphic Math**Use above drawing for questions 7 – 14. X is a bolt, Y and Z are nuts, and W is a washer. Solve for dimension A. Solve for the area of the washer. (a) 1.00 (a) 0.785 (b) 0.50 (b) 0.835 (c) 0.75 (c) 0.589 (d) 2.25 (d) 0.625 (e) none (e) none**Chapter 10 Spatial Skills**• Orthographic projection • 3 view drawings • Surface identification • Rotated/Flipped timed test • Same object/ Different object timed test • Box folding and unfolding timed test**Chapter 10 Spatial Skills**Example of 3 view drawing One of the views below is not complete, fill in the missing lines.