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Overtraining

Overtraining

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Overtraining

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  1. Overtraining Dr. Noel McCaffrey Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU

  2. overtraining • the training / preparation challenge • what is the overtraining syndrome • do we understand the mechanism? • recognition • treatment and prevention

  3. training areas • Resistance • choice of exercise • order of exercise • volume (sets x reps) • intensity (% rep max) • rest (between sets) • Speed • speed generation • repeat speed • Endurance • central adaptation • peripheral (sport specific) adaptation • cross training (injured) Skills technique repetition Team play

  4. the challenge provide continuous training stimulus with adequate variety, recovery, progression to • facilitate optimum performance at the right time(s) • avoid OTS • minimise injury

  5. the overtraining syndrome a condition characterised by •  performance in training / competition (incl technical) •  effort required to deliver same performance • failure to show progression / improvement despite maintained or increased training

  6. overtraining process  overtraining syndrome other words staleness overwork burnout chronic fatigue overfatigue overstrain

  7. inadequate recovery Fitness Level Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Days

  8. overload training stimulus  adequate recovery  training increase (appropriate)   performance over-reaching training stimulus  inadequate recovery  repeated (+ ) training   performance  rest  full recovery in 2-3weeks overtraining training stimulus  inadequate recovery  repeated (+ ) training   performance  no recovery with rest

  9. prevalence of OT signs and symptoms of OT seen in •  60% distance runners over a career •  50% pro soccer players in a 5 month competitive season • 33% basketball players in a 6 week training camp

  10. general fatigue malaise  energy (malaise)  enthusiasm  motivation irritable / restless anxious appetite change weight loss depression  focus / concentration common symptoms of OTS

  11. diagnostic difficulties diagnosis of exclusion different symptoms with • different individuals doing same same training • acute vs chronic  performance •  volume vs  intensity • sympathetic vs parasympathetic models • endurance vs ‘anaerobic’ overtraining

  12. parasympathetic overtraining volume overload (resistance or endurance) •  testosterone : cortisol ratio • fatigue • depression • apathy •  resting HR

  13. sympathetic overtraining intensity overload • insomnia • irritability • restlessness •  HR •  blood pressure

  14. internal factors body mass biomechanics nutrition technique fatigue external factors training volume training intensity repetition footwear surface equipment overuse injuries

  15. what causes it? imbalance / mismatch training recovery exercise exercise capacity stress stress tolerance

  16. initiating events •  volume / intensity of training • monotony of training • illness (disease / infection) • caloric restriction /  carbohydrate intake • iron deficiency • exercise-heat stress • personal / emotional problems • occupational stress

  17.  blood constitiuents haemoglobin / hematocrit white cells iron blood lactate in submax / max exercise testosterone / cortisol catecholamines (resting / nocturnal) cardiorespiratory  resting / max heart rate VO2max  heart rate / VO2 / VE during exercise  basal metabolic rate  infection biological markers

  18. immune system •  upper respiratory tract infection in OR / OT athlethes • cause or effect?

  19. causes of persistent fatigue and underperformance in sport • less common • dehydration • diabtees • eating disorders • hepatitis • hypothyroidism • postconcussion • substance abuse • lr resp tract infection • side effects of • meds / supplements • nutrition •  carbo / protein • common • caffeine withdrawal • allergies • ex-induced asthma •  sleep •  iron (+/- anaemia) • performance anxiety • infection • mononucleosis • upp. resp tract infection • OTS • mood disorder • anxiety / depression • rare • endocrine disease •  or  adrenal gland • heart disease • HIV • malabsorption • lung disease • malignancy • renal disease • neuromuscular disease

  20. What is it failure to generate or maintain desired exercise intensity peripheral mechanism (fuel depletion) central mechanisms ( brain serotonin) core symptom of many illnesses Fatigue in illness viral illness anaemia hypothyroidism hypoglycaemia chronic fatigue syndrome depression fatigue

  21. general fatigue / malaise  appetite irritable / restless  body weight  motivation interest / pleasure  concentration feeling hopeless / worthless feeling sad persistent physical symptoms that fail to respond suicidal thoughts OTS and Major Depression

  22.  recovery days periodise  variety ensure vol : intensity inverse relationship avoid high intensity over prolonged period avoid high intensity over prolonged period in resistence sessions, avoid completing every set of every exercise in every session avoid overworking one area avoid excess eccentric work Treatment and Prevention ? role for antidepressant medication