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Smart Dust

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Smart Dust

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  1. Smart Dust Mohammad Rahimi CSCI599-Spring2002

  2. Back to future! • Colonies of smart ultra small size network • Interaction of advances in technology • VLSI more condense silicon processing • VLSI more silicon speed • VLSI low power short range communication • MEMS Micro-Electromechanical Systems • Networking : Ad hoc wireless Network • Distributed Processing : Operating system, Database

  3. Wow!

  4. Applications • It is a special class of sensor network • Fine sensing granularity • Applications : • Forest fire warning • Enemy troop monitoring • Large scale Biology or Geology • Smart office spaces • Defense-related sensor networks • Inventory Control

  5. Circulatory Net Group of sensors inside the body

  6. Key Features of these electronic particles • Power • Survive for extended amount of time • Computation • Process Sensor Data and Communicate • Sensors • To Interface to the environment • Communication • To glue the pieces of information

  7. What is really behind the race?Computer Science! • Ad hoc Networking • Dynamic Reconfigurable network • Scalability • Data Fusion • An efficient semantic to diffuse data in the network • Interpretation of multimodal sensing • Distributed Processing • Network Oriented Operating Systems • Data Aggregation

  8. Come Back to Reality!COTS Dust • Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components Dust • To enable us the research about the algorithms and semantics

  9. Architecture Low Power Communication Front End 1-Acoustic 2-RF 3-Optical Computation Brain 1-MCU 2-FPGA Sensors 1-Magnetometer2- Light 3-temperature 4-pressure 5-Hmidity 6-Acceleration Power 1-Bat 2-Sollar 3-Vibration 4-Acoustic Noise

  10. Architecture

  11. Power • Power: Lithium Battery • Big Problem • Low capacity per unit of mass and volume • Needs support by sleep mechanism and low power techniques • Not really so much innovation after Volta! • Solar • Vibration • Acoustic noise • Thermal conversion • Nuclear Reaction • Fuel Cells

  12. Computation • Computation: ATMEL91M404000 • Micro Controller • Core and variety of different functions • Flash , SRAM , E2PROM • GPIO , ADC , PWM ,Comparator • Embedded serial Buses • Ex: Microcontrollers Atmel , Microchip, Motorola Microprocessors Intel Strong-Arms ,Motorola • FPGA • Not Traditional Style Of programming • Hardware Descriptive Languages (VHDL, Verilog) • Faster , Low Power , Reconfigurable • Ex: Xilix,Atmel

  13. Sensors • Motion Sensing • Magnetometer • Study 3 Element of Earth Magnetic field (Compass) • Accelerometer • To measure Local vertical (tilt switch) or measure motion vectors • Environmental Sensing(Weather Monitoring) • Pressure • Barometer • Temperature • Light • Humidity

  14. Communication • Acoustic • RF radio • Optical • Passive • Active

  15. Acoustic Communication • Power Hungry • High Background Noise • Large Size (proportional to harmonics of sound) • Fast Attenuation Curve • Low communication baud rate • Low power receiver • Good for event driven wake up systems

  16. RF Communication • New low power techniques • Not robust (No fancy Spread Spectrum) • ISM Band • For practical frequencies large ANT Size(~λ) • It may have a tail!! • Only one RF front end • MCU acts as base band controller • CRC,Encoding(Manchester),DC Balance,Header

  17. RF Communication Train Sequence Flag Byte Number OF Byte DATA CRC • No Addressing

  18. Optical Communication • Active • High power laser source • Transmission of modulated laser beam • Passive • MEMS Corner Cube Reflector • Emit modulated ambient light • Extremely low power

  19. Optical Vs. RF • Both mature technology • Both Electromagnetic waves • light is quiet short wavelength compared to RF • Potential of smaller sizes • light techniques are extremely directional • Peer-Peer • RF techniques can be more omni directional • Directionality Brings the problem of alignment

  20. Future Work • Design of multi hop network • Autonomous network configuration • Data Fusion • Network Decision making • Large Scale Distributed Processing

  21. Links • http://www.heise.de/tp/english/inhalt/co/5269/1.html • http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/ • http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,27573,00.html • http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,44101,00.html • http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~warneke/SmartDust/ • http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~glaser/Current%20Civil%20Applications.ppt • http://madmax.me.berkeley.edu/%7Eshadr/overview.html

  22. That is all folks!