Monroe Doctrine US attitudes of the day -“Monroe Doctrine” (1823)- US President James Monroe told all other European powers to not get involved in Latin American affairs. In 1803, the US had purchased The Louisiana Territory feeding the appetite of westward expansion (Manifest Destiny).
Manifest Destiny According to the theory of Manifest Destiny, the US was the perfect example of the City of God on earth and the European race were chosen people predestined for salvation. Most Anglo Americans believed that God had made them custodians of democracy and that Anglo Americans had a mission and that God predestined them to spread their culture and beliefs to the rest of the world.
Texas Invasion or Settlement? • There were about 4,000 Mexicans living in Texas in 1803. But Spain had given Moses Austin permission to settle Texas: after he died, Mexico gave his son Stephen Austin permission to settle and in 1821 he founded the colony of San Felipe de Austin. Large number of Anglo-American colonists entered Texas in the 1820s. By 1830, about 20,000 colonists had settled in Texas along with some 2,000 slaves (Acuna 2007:37)
Anglo Migration into Mexican Territory • The Mexicans had given permission for this colonization but asked them to become Catholics, respect the Mexican Government, and to abolish slavery. (Mexico abolished slavery in 1829) Needless to say, neither were respected. In 1830, Mexico prohibits further Anglo-American colonization and Andrew Jackson attempts to buy Texas for $5 million dollars but is rejected.
Ilegal Immigration? • Sam Houston (1832) calls for autonomy and becomes leader of an army. Austin, with the support of Sam Houston and Andrew Jackson, appeals to Mexican government but to no avail. He then calls for massive Anglo American colonization of Texas, “each man with his rifle, with passports or no passports”. He says,” For 14 years I have had a hard time of it, but nothing shall daunt my courage or abate my objective to colonize Americanize Texas”.
Stephen Austin In 1835, Austin concluded, “War is our only answer. There is no other remedy” The overwhelming number of the 5,000 Mexicans living in Texas stayed loyal to Mexico, but the Anglo American population eclipsed the Mexican population by 30,000!
Texas Revolution Santa Ana led the retake of the Alamo to punish the Texan Rebellion in 1836 killing all 187 Anglo Americans at the Alamo and more at the city of Goliad with 6,000 troops. The cry of “Remember the Alamo” became a call to arms for Anglo Americans in both Texas and the US after the Mexican Army retook possession of the Old Mission and killed all but a few of the resistors.
Santa Anna’s Speech From The Alamo movie
Remember the Alamo But he was later captured at the Battle San Jacinto which lasted less than an hour, and signed away the right of the Mexican government to Texas. The Mexican government did not recognize the treaty but was not able to do much to take back the land.
Lone Star Republic In September of 1836, Sam Houston is elected president of the new Republic of Texans. In 1844, President James Polk firmly believed in the annexation of Texas. By 1845, war with Mexico was inevitable as Texas became part of the Union.