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The Fragmentation of the Caliphate, the Steppe Turks, and the Seljuqs

The Fragmentation of the Caliphate, the Steppe Turks, and the Seljuqs

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The Fragmentation of the Caliphate, the Steppe Turks, and the Seljuqs

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  1. The Fragmentation of the Caliphate, the Steppe Turks, and the Seljuqs HIST 1007 10/23/13

  2. How Do We Get from Here…

  3. To Here?

  4. The Fragmentation of the Caliphate

  5. The Caliphal Fiction • Independent provincial dynasties • Aghlabids – North Africa (800-909) • Tahirids – Khurasan (821-873) • Military dynasties • 861 – al-Mutawakkil and the Turks • Iqta` • Tulunids – Egypt and Syria (868-905) • Saffarids – Iran (861-1003) IbnTulun Mosque, Fustat, Egypt

  6. The Iranian Intermezzo • Tahirids (821-873) • “Rogue” `Abbasid governors • Saffarids (861-1003) • `Ayyarand Mutattawwi`a • Samanids (819-999) • Central Asian Persian nobility • Buwayhids (Buyids) (934-1055) • Generals in charge • Ghaznavids (962-1186) • Slave soldiers in charge Minaret at the Ghaznavid capital of Ghazni, Afghanistan

  7. Shi’ism Resurgent • Hamdanids – Northern Iraq and Syria (890-1004) • Shi’ite Arabs appointed by the `Abbasids • Fatimids – North Africa, Egypt, and Syria (909-1171) • Ismaili Shi’ite Counter Caliphate • Buwayhids – Iraq and Iran (934-1055) • Zaydi turned Imami Shi’ites from Daylam al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo Cairo was founded by the Fatimids in 969

  8. The Buwayhids • Daylam – southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea • Never conquered by the caliphate • Refuge for Zaydi Shi’ites • Late 9th century – Daylamite mercenaries enter `Abbasid service • `Ali, al-Hasan, and Ahmad ibnBuya are mercenaries hired by Iranian warlords Forested mountains of Daylam

  9. The Buwayhids • 933 – Local land owners ask `Ali b. Buya to remove abusive military governor in Fars (southwest Iran) • 934 - `Ali take control of Fars and begins building his own army • 935 – al-Hasan b. Buya begins conquest of Rayy and Central Iran • 944 – Ahmad b. Buya marches on Baghdad Buwayhid bazaar in Shiraz, capital of Fars

  10. Buwayhids • Amir al-umara’ – commander of the commanders or general of the generals • 936 – amir al-umara’ also gains control over administration • 946 – Ahmad b. Buya named amir al-umara’ by the caliph al-Mustakfi (r. 944-946) • In a decade, Buwayhid brothers conquer Iraq and Western Iran and take control of `Abbasid government

  11. Buwayhid Commonwealth • Tripartite commonwealth • Shiraz, Rayy, and Baghdad • Eldest of three rulers declared shahanshah • Buwayhid in Baghdad is always amir al-umara’ • Conquerors of Baghdad, but… • Careful about relationship with `Abbasids • Receive titles and offices from caliph • Tribute paid to caliph

  12. Buwayhid Honorary Titles • Received from `Abbasid Caliph • In recognition of dedication to `Abbasid family • `Ali b. Buya = `Imad al-Dawla (Support of the State) • al-Hasan b. Buya = Rukn al-Dawla (Pillar of the State) • Ahmad b. Buya = Mu`izz al-Dawla (Glorifier of the State) Buwayhid coin with titles alongside name of caliph and heir apparent

  13. Buwayhids and Shi’ism • Zaydi Shi’ite refugees spread Shi’ism in Daylam • Why don’t Buwayhids replace `Abbasid Caliphs with Shi’ite Imam? • Why would they switch from Zaydi to ImamiShi’ism?

  14. The Steppe Turks and the Seljuqs

  15. Turks and Islam • Paganism – living spirits inhabit all objects animate and inanimate • Shamanism – shamans can interact with spirits and travel in spiritual realms • Nestorian Christianity, Buddhism, and Manichaeism spread along Silk Road • Mid-10th century – Islam expands onto steppes • Lowers opposition to Turks Turkic Shaman, Russian Empire, 1908

  16. Turks in Islamic World • Turkish ghulams • Ghaznavids (962-1186) • Ghulams of the Samanids • Form independent dynasty in Afghanistan • Qarakhanids (992-1212) • Muslim Qarluq Turks • Conquer Samanid lands • Welcomed as good Muslim rulers Qarakhanid mausoleum in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan

  17. Ghaznavids, Qarakhanids, and the Steppe

  18. The Seljuqs • Oghuz Turks • Tughril Beg (r. 1016-1063) – First Great Seljuq • 1025 – cross Oxus River into Khurasan • Was there a little Ice Age? • 1040 – Battle of Dandanaqan • Seljuqs defeat Ghaznavids for control of Khurasan • Begin war against Buywahids BurjTughril, tomb of Tughril Beg, near Rayy, Iran

  19. The Sunni Revival • Seljuqs become defenders of Sunni Islam • Byproduct of war with Buwayhids? • Employment of `ulama’ and sufis to justify rule • 1055 – Invited into Baghdad to rescue `Abbasids from Buwayhids • Does not mean revival of `Abbasid power

  20. Seljuq Empire in 1092