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Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era

Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era

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Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era

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  1. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Roots of Civil War Declaration of Independence (1776), Articles of Confederation (1781), and U.S. Constitution (1787) –Lost opportunity to stop the Slave Trade in the U.S. In 1808, Slave Trade abolished – NOT! – Just turned into Slave Smuggling. Missouri Compromise of 1820 – Issue of slavery became a balance of power struggle in Congress. Why? Sectionalism – Belief that slavery was not evil, but a necessity that the south (if not the country) could not survive w/o it.

  2. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Election of 1824 - Each section of the nation had their “favorite son” to nominate for the presidency South/Southeast #1:Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia. New England:Secretary of State John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. West/Northwest:Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky. West/Southwest:Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. South (Carolina)South Carolina nominated Secretary of War John C. Calhoun.

  3. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Election of 1824Scoreboard: Andrew Jackson – 99 Electoral Votes (strong support from Union except New England) John Quincy Adams - 84 EVs (NE & NY) William Crawford – 41 EVs (Southeast) Henry Clay – 37 EVs (Northwest) John C. Calhoun – New Vice President of the U.S. According to the Constitution, to be elected president, the nominee for president must have a majority of the Electoral College vote. (261 votes, one nominee needs the minimum of 131) – No Majority!

  4. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era 12th Amendment says that the House must pick the top three vote-getters and choose. (Jackson vs. Adams) Henry Clay plays a big role – Throws support to Adams. John Quincy Adams is President. The Corrupt Bargain - JQA and Clay met to discuss their political futures after JQA was elected by the House. Clay becomes Secretary of State. Accusations of the bargain will affect the careers of both Adams and Clay. Jackson made it his purpose to return to the government “to the people.”

  5. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era JQA and his “National Program” – JQA called for a strong national program. Huge federal expenditures – Internal improvements, larger Navy, education. Wanted to touch every American. Would not work under Sectionalism. American did not trust Adam’s government b/c of Corrupt Bargain. Preferred ideas and principles to the compromises of political parties. Ignored his followers – National Republicans. Tariff of Abominations – Only major legislation to pass under Adams.

  6. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Tariff of Abominations – Only major legislation to pass under Adams. Supporters of Andrew Jackson – Democratic Republicans Wanted to be friends w/ Industry and Farmers Proposed a bill w/ so many new duties and higher rates – so many abominations – that they expected the bill would be defeated by members of the Democratic –Republican party. Oops! Passed and signed by JQA. (Jackson had separated himself from Bill)

  7. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Election of 1828– Jackson beat JQA in popular and electoral votes. Change in Suffrage (Right to vote) – No longer had to own land to vote. Introduction of the “Spoils System”- Rewarding political supporters w/ jobs close to the elected official. Jackson Takes Command – “Old Hickory” was old and tired. Soaked in the Presidency. Did not like his cabinet (Eaton Affair). Stopped meeting with them. Started taking advice from old friends, Became know as his “Kitchen Cabinet.” Martin Van Buren (Sec of State) won Jackson’s favor by getting rid of most of Jackson’s cabinet. VP Calhoun loses Jackson’s Confidence.

  8. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era The Spark – South Carolina – a Southern slave-holding state whose economy (Cotton) was destroyed by: Overproduction and tariffs Slave Conspiracy (Denmark Vesey) – revolt like the one in Haiti. Debates over Missouri Compromise. Feelings that their “peculiar institution” must be treated as a sacred institution. Paranoid about Slavery. Opponents of internal improvements. States’ Rights. John C. Calhoun – Felt the Union could not be preserved if the rights of the states could be infringed. “The Exposition and Protest of South Carolina” – Tariff was unconstitutional b/c it unfairly taxed one section of the country for the benefit of another.

  9. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Revisit the VA and KY Resolutions – Calhoun believed Congress was exceeding its powers; therefore, each state, w/in its borders, had the power of Nullification. (Nullify an act of Congress as unconstitutional.) To override “nullification” Congress would have to pass an amendment, which requires the approval of ¾ of the states. Nullification debated in Congress – Issue over Public Lands – An alliance between South and West East – price of land high, expand slowly. South – keep price low, ally w/ West on issues of slavery. Senator Robert Hayne (SC) – Open up public lands, and supported nullification. (Slavery into the West)

  10. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Senator Daniel Webster (MA) – The states did not make the Union, the People made the Union. Only the Supreme Court had the power a law unconstitutional. States Rights = Union would fall apart. “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.” Webster: Like the colonists and 1812ers, the people’s liberties could only be preserved by a strong Union Calhoun and Hayne: Slavery was a sacred institution on which the prosperity of their region depended. No compromise between the two factions is leading the nation to a bloody civil war.

  11. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era State’s Rights vs. Preserving the Union – The debate at the Jefferson Day Dinner Calhoun and his followers tried to trap President Jackson into talking about the KY Resolution – Get him on their side. Jackson too smart – preempts Calhoun’s attempt by offering a toast to Calhoun: “Our Union, it must be preserved.” Calhoun: “The Union – Next to our liberties, most dear.” Jackson clearly won the day by stating his stance (Preserving the Union) and would not put up w/ Calhoun’s nonsense. Calhoun realizes he was standing in his grave wondering what things might have been after Jackson calls him out over Calhoun favoring punishing Jackson for his actions in his Florida Campaign. Jackson and Calhoun will cease speaking to each other.

  12. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Moral: State’s Rights was going to have a challenge in preserving the economic system of slavery. Nullification Controversy - (Tariffs, slave rebellions, and the Gov’t! Oh, my!) Talking about SC, again! 1832 – A new high protective tariff was passed to replace the “Tariff of Abominations”. Free black, Denmark Vesey, in South Carolina and Preacher Nat Turner in VA – Led slave revolts – Shook up the South. (VA abolishing slavery. Slaves out #’d whites in the South.) To preserve the Union, Federal Gov’t would continue to squeeze the South and interfere w/ economy of slavery . South Carolina – protect property (Institution of Slavery Nullify all federal laws that affect their “Property”!

  13. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Tariff acts of 1828 and 1832 – Unconstitutional, thus null and void. SC would not pay taxes. Further attempts at taxes – reason for secession Jackson’s response to Nullification – SC was committing an Act of Treason (disobeying federal law and threatening to secede) Force Bill* – 50,000 troops to SC to enforce taxes. The nation supports Jackson (nationalism.) SC is by itself (sectionalism). Henry Clay and John Calhoun create a compromise Reduced tariff rates over 9 years, but did not remove them. SC to remain in Union, for now. Who wins?SC – Tariffs lowered or Union – SC forced to repeal nullification.

  14. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Jackson’s Indian Policy - The best place for Native Americans was somewhere else. Move them to the other side of the Mississippi River Move them to lands that whites were forbidden to settle. This way it would prevent further battles between white settlers and Native Americans. Jackson signed 94 Indian Treaties in his two terms of office. Most famous was the resettlement of the Cherokees from Georgia to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Gen. Winfield Scott was put in charges of the relocation of 15,000 Cherokee men, women and children in the fall of 1838. This path was called the “Trail of Tears.” (1500 died).

  15. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Jackson’s Monster – Bank of the United States Paper $$$, BAD. Gold & Silver, EXCELLENT! Henry Clay and B of US Pres, Nicholas Biddle tried to re-charter bank before 1836. Jackson Vetoed Challenge of 1832 election – Jackson win this battle w/ Monster! Jackson: Time to Destroy the Monster Stopped depositing any more $$$ into B of US Pay Debts from $$ already in the B of US Sec of Treasury, Roger Taney, used ‘Pet Banks” to deposit $$ in besides B of US. (Bad Idea. No regulation. Lent $$ w/o proper authorization. Printed paper $$ to help the economy.)

  16. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era “Specie Circular” – Forbade Treasury dept. from accepting paper $$ for land transaction. All transactions have to made in gold and silver. Stopped land purchases at once; Surplus issued to states to keep them alive. Nation will pay for it in the Panic of 1837 and Depression of 1839. Jackson’s Presidency – proved President could make and change policy as well as enforce Congress’ policies – ONLY IF HE HAD THE SUPPORT OF THE PEOPLE. “King Andrew I” To prove his tyranny, the National Republicans changed their name to the WHIGS – after the British party struggled against the king in the 1700s

  17. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Era Martin Van Buren - Jackson’s reckless financial policies will plague Van Buren’s Presidency. Specie Circular, Spending surplus, DEBT, shortage of gold and silver, farm crisis – led to Panic of 1837 & 1839 depression. Banks failed, factories closed, real estate sales slowed to a trickle, surplus gone, debt rising, unemployment. Bummer. Van Buren’s whole administration will be highlight by this business depression One highlight: On March 31, 1840, he issued an executive order that no person could work more than 10 hours per day on a federal project. Not re-elected in 1840 – Will history repeat in 2012?