Warm-Up Warm-Up:Bkgd Review Activity Ethics What are ethics? What does displaying ethical behavior mean?
2-2 Ethical Theories & Decision-Making Models The Three Principles The Bok Model Ethical Questions Before Publishing
Huh??? The Three Principles #1 – Ends-Based Thinking: “Do what’s best for the greatest number of people.” #2 – Rule-Based Thinking: “Follow your higher sense of principle.” #3 – Care-Based Thinking: “Do what you want others to do to you.”
Ends-Based Thinking Sum-Up What will eventually happen if this decision is made? What are the possible outcomes? With that in mind, what decision benefits the greatest number of people?
Rule-Based Thinking Sum-Up What is the universally “right” decision? (Universal Law) What standards should be followed regarding this decision?
Care-Based Thinking Sum-Up Imagine yourself in their shoes… What would we want done to us in this situation? (examine all stakeholders)
Understanding the FACTS • Discuss all the facts of the case with those involved in making the decision. • What are the facts? Outlining VALUES • What is valued by those making the decisions? How does this impact the ethical decision? • When an idea or principle is valued, it means one is willing to give up something for it.
Apply the PRINCIPLES • Once it is decided what is valued, philosophical principles should be applied. • Examine – Aristotle's’ Golden Mean, Kant’s Categorical Imperative, and Utilitarianism. Articulation of LOYALTIES • Examine loyalties and see if any conflict. • Make ethical decision based on this process.
Your Conscience The Bok Model 1.) Consult your own conscience – about the “rightness” of an action. How do you feel about the action? 2.) Seek expert advice – for alternatives to the act creating the ethical problem. Is there another way to achieve the same goal that will not raise ethical issues? 3.) Conduct a public discussion – with the parties involved in the dispute. If they cannot be gathered, conduct the discussion hypothetically. How will others respond to the proposed act?
BEFORE PUBLICATION EthicalQuestions What do I know? What do I need to know? What is my journalistic purpose? What are my ethical concerns? What organizational policies and professional guidelines should I consider? How can I include other people, with different perspectives and diverse ideas, in the decision-making process?
“That does not mean, however, that there is no logical and sequential process for ethical decision-making. True, we may not be aware that a pattern exists, but that does not mean that there is no pattern…Developing real skill at ethics requires that intelligence fuse with intuition, that the process be internalized, and that decisions be made quickly, and naturally.” ~ Rushworth Kidder Sum-Up