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Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling? PowerPoint Presentation
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Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling?

Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling?

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Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling?

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  1. Atherton 2007 Declaration by the Metals Industry on Recycling Principles Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling? A: Yes, metal recycling has environmental, economic and social value. Q: Do metals typically have limited recycling potential? A: No, they can be recycled over and over again. Q: Is there oversupply or undersupply of metal scrap? A: Undersupply, due to growing metal demand and long product lifetimes. Q: Does the metals industry think specifying recycled content is useful? A: For materials that would otherwise be incinerated or landfilled. Q: Does the metals industry think specifying recycled metal content is useful? A: No, it may create market distortions and inefficiencies. Q: Where do the market distortions and inefficiencies come from? A: Redirecting recycled feedstock and unnecessary transportation. Q: What should life cycle management of steel focus on instead? A: End-of-life recycling. Q: Why is that article in the International Journal of LCA? A: Its statements have a big impact on how recycling should be modeled in LCAs.

  2. BOF 761 (64%) Scrap 640 generated Scrap 440 consumed 69% EAF 381 (33%) Global crude steel production (in MMT) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

  3. BOF 540 (47%) EAF 602 (53%) Global crude steel production (in MMT) 1200 1000 800 600 Scrap 640 generated 400 100% consumed 200 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

  4. GHG emissions of virgin and recycled material production (Kg CO2eq / kg) Source: EPA (2006) Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks, EPA 530-R-06-004

  5. Energy savings from reuse and recycling of some metals and products

  6. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Before change 1 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Existing Scrap market Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=100 S=100 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100 100

  7. Collection ΔX=+1 Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap supply increases 0 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=100 S=100 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100 100

  8. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap supply increases 0 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrap use increases Collection ΔX=+1 Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection S=100 D=100.6 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 99.4 100 Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit • displaces 0.6 units of primary material

  9. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap supply increases 0 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrap use increases Collection ΔX=+1 Scrapmarket Scrap supply decreases Secondaryproduction Collection D=100.6 S=99.6 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 99.4 100.4 Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit • displaces 0.6 units of primary material • displaces 0.4 units of other scrap

  10. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling After change 0 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Collection ΔX=+1 Scrapmarket • Additional scrap can • increase recycling • decrease collection Secondaryproduction Collection D=100.6 S=99.6 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 99.4 100.4

  11. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Before change 1 1 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Existing Scrap market Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=100 S=100 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100 100

  12. Secondaryproduction ΔX= + 1 Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap demand increases 1 0 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=100 S=100 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100 100

  13. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap use increases 1 0 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrap supply increases Secondaryproduction ΔX= + 1 Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=100 S=100.4 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100 99.6 Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit • increases scrap collection by 0.4 units

  14. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Scrap demand increases 1 0 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrap supply increases Secondaryproduction ΔX= + 1 Scrapmarket Scrap use decreases Secondaryproduction Collection D=99.4 S=100.4 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100.6 99.6 Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit • increases primary production by 0.6 units • increases scrap collection by 0.4 units

  15. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling After change 1 0 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Secondaryproduction ΔX= + 1 Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection D=99.4 S=100.4 Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal 100.6 99.6

  16. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling 1 0 Primaryproduction Use A 1 unit Disposal Scrap market clears Secondaryproduction ΔX= + 1 But to what extent does increased scrap use Scrapmarket Secondaryproduction Collection increase supply ΔD=? ΔS=? or decrease scrap collection? Primaryproduction Other uses 200 units Disposal One approach is to use price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply: Source: Ekvall T, Resources Conservation & Recycling 2000, 29, 91-109

  17. A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling Changes in scrap flow change scrap price, a changed scrap price changes scrap flows Scrap market clears

  18. Some elasticities from literature Predicted change in scrap demand ΔD supply ΔS Source: Palmer K, Sigman H, Walls M, J Environ Econ Mngmnt 1997, 33, 128-150

  19. Some Notes on Eco-labels There are 3 types of eco-labels: Type 1: Voluntary, multiple-criteria based third party program that awards a license which authorizes the use of environmental labels on products indicating overallenvironmental preferability of a products within a particular product category basedon life cycle considerations. ISO 14024:1999 Type 2: Self-declared environmental claims. ISO 14021:1999 Type 3: Environmental product declaration (EPD). Quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters set by a qualified third party, based on the ISO14040 series of standards (LCA), and verified by a qualified third party. ISO/TR 14025:2000

  20. Electronic product environmental assessment tool (IEEE) Appliances, buildings, etc. (EPA and DOE) Forest Stewardship Council Environmental Choice Ecologo (Canadian Government) Environmental Choice (Australia)

  21. Eco Flower (European Commission DG Environment ) Nordic swan (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland) Blue Angel (Germany, Federal Environment Agency) Eco Mark (Japan) http://www.globalecolabelling.net

  22. Terms commonly used in self-declared environmental claims • Compostable • Degradable/biodegradable • Reduced energy consumption / resource use / water consumption • Recyclable • Recycled content/material (pre-consumer, post-consumer) • Reusable/refillable • Waste reduction American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) definition: “Biodegradable plastic: a degradable plastic in which the degradation results from the action of naturally occurring microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae”.

  23. European Standard for biodegradability is EN 13432 (2000): • Biodegradation (conversion into CO2 by microorganisms): over 90% compared with cellulose in 6 months under conditions of controlled composting using respirometric methods (ISO14855) • Disintegration (fragmentation and loss of visibility): over 90% in 3 months (ISO FDIS 16929) • Ecotoxicity: test results from aquatic and terrestrial organisms (Daphnia magna, worm test, germination test) as for reference compost • Absence of hazardous chemicals (included in the reference list)

  24. Speaker Monday, April 27, 11:00-12:15, BH1424: Jill Dumain Director Environmental Analysis, Patagonia Inc. Reading for Monday, April 27: Chouinard Y, Brown M (1997) Going Organic, JIE 1(1) Posted on course website as Chouinard & Brown 1997