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Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood

Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood

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  1. Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood Dr. Arra PSY 232

  2. Young Adulthood (22 – 40) Piaget • Cognitive development beyond formal operational stage • Postformal thought • Acknowledged by Piaget

  3. Young Adulthood Perry’s Cognitive Theory (1970, 1981) • Interviewed college students • Younger students engaged in dualistic thinking • Dualistic thinking: dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, us and them, black and white

  4. Young Adulthood PERRY’S COGNITIVE THEORY • Older students engaged in relativistic thinking • Relativistic thinking: viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought; absolute truths are abandoned and truths become multiple and contextualized; comfortable with the gray

  5. Young Adulthood SCHAIE’S THEORY (1977, 1978) • Stage theory • Acquisition Stage (childhood & adolescence) stage devoted to acquiring knowledge • Achieving Stage (early adulthood) focus less on acquiring knowledge and more on applying it (e.g., job, marriage/family)

  6. Young Adulthood SCHAIE’S THEORY 3) Responsibility Stage: (middle adulthood) responsibilities expand beyond job and family > to the community; cognition extends to situations involving social obligations 4) Reintegrative Stage: (late adulthood) as people retire they reintegrate their interests, attitudes, and values as a way of guiding the quality of their lifestyle; no need to acquire new knowledge or monitor long-term decisions; focus on daily activities

  7. Young Adulthood Labouvie-Vief’s Theory (1980, 1985) • Adult thinking centers around pragmatic thought • Logic is the tool for solving real-world problems • Adults specialize in their job fields

  8. Young Adulthood Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence • Experiential element: insightful or creative aspect of intelligence • Contextual element: practical intelligence • Componential element: analytic aspect of intelligence

  9. Young Adulthood STERNBERG • An aspect of practical intelligence • Tacit knowledge – commonsense knowledge of how to get ahead; largely acquired on one’s own; can include self-management skills, task management skills, and the ability to manage others

  10. Young Adulthood Expertise – acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or endeavor Development of Expertise is supported by: • Selecting a college major; graduate school; job • Someone with expertise can reason and remember very quickly and efficiently

  11. Young Adulthood PHYSICAL CHANGES • Senescence (biological aging) – genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems • Body structures reach maximum capacity and efficiency in the teens and twenties

  12. Young Adulthood • Vision: 30> lens stiffens and thickens, ability to focus on close objects declines • Cardiovascular (gradual) heart muscle becomes more rigid, maximum heart rate decreases; artery walls stiffen and accumulate plaque, blood flow to body cells is reduced • Respiratory (gradual) respiratory capacity decreases due to stiffening of connective tissue in the lungs

  13. Young Adulthood • Skeletal 30> cartilage in joints thins and cracks, leading bone ends beneath it to erode • Reproductive 35> fertility problems and risk of having a baby with a chromosomal disorder increase

  14. Young Adulthood OBESITY • Defined as greater than 20% increase over average body weight • 20% of young adults are obese • Risks: high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, heart attack, sleep disorders

  15. Young Adulthood TREATMENT • Well-balanced diet • Exercise • Social support • Long-term treatment: (25-40 weeks) allow people time to develop new habits

  16. Young Adulthood SELECTING A VOCATION • Individuals move through stages (Ginzberg, 1972; Super, 1980) • Fantasy period – early and middle childhood; children fantasize about glamorous and exciting careers • Tentative period – early and middle adolescence – evaluate vocational options in terms of interests and ability

  17. Young Adulthood 3) Realistic Period (late adolescence and early adulthood) individuals start to narrow their options by focusing on a general vocational category; experimenting and then settling on a single occupation

  18. Young Adulthood Factors influencing vocational choice • Personality • Family • Teachers/Mentors • Gender Stereotypes