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Population Ecology Chapter 4:. Section 1 Vocabulary (5):. population density, population growth rate, emigration, immigration, carrying capacity. SC.912.L.17.5:.

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## Population Ecology Chapter 4:

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**Section 1 Vocabulary (5):**• population density, • population growth rate, • emigration, • immigration, • carrying capacity**SC.912.L.17.5:**• Analyze how population size is determined by births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and limiting factors (biotic and abiotic), that determine carrying capacity**Populations**• Groups of the same species, living in the same area, at the same time!**Population Characteristics**• Population Density (92) • The number of organisms per unit area. • How many are in a given amount of space? • Notes: Population density is highest when resources are abundant and when body size is small**Patterns of population dispersion**• Dispersion is the patters of spacing within an area. • Uniform • Clumped • Random • You can still calculated density!**Population Limiting Factors**• Density independent factors: (94): • Any factor in the environment that does not depend on the number of members in the population per unit area. • Notes: usually are abiotic, includes natural phenomena and weather events like drought, floods, extreme heat or cold**Density dependent(95)**• Any factor in the environment that depends on the number of members in a population per unit area. • Notes: usually biotic such as predation, disease, parasites, competition. Graphs of 2 populations often show a rise and fall in population size demonstrating the dependence on one another**Population Growth Rate(97)**• How fast a population grows or increases in size. • Notes: Depends on factors such as • Density dependent , Density independent • Immigration, emigration**Emigration (97)**• The number of individuals moving away from a population**Immigration (97)**• The number of individuals moving into a population. • Notes Most of the time emigration rates = immigration rates. • Natality= number being born= increases • Mortality= number dying = decreases**No limits= exponential growth**• Lots of food, lots of space, no competition, no predators …growth will go on and on…**Logistic Growth**• Growth starts off the same way as exponential, with a lag phase, then grows rapidly, but reaches the carrying capacity. (k) and stops increasing when the number of births is less than the number of deaths or emigration exceeds immigration.**Carrying Capacity (K) (98)**• The maximum number of individuals in a species that an environment can support for the long term. • Notes: limited by energy, water, oxygen, and nutrients available**1. What are the characteristics of populations? Density,**distribution and growth rate**2. Why are populations with really low population densities**less likely to survive than those with higher densities?**There are fewer of them to start off with so when some are**lost, it is harder for the population to recover.**3. Name and describe the three types of population**dispersion. • 1. Uniform: evenly dispersed • 2. Clumped: in groupings • 3. Random: no particular pattern**4. Food, water, and disease are examples of**density-_dependent factors. • Therefore, weather and climate are examples of density-independent factors.**5. How does emigration affect a population?**• InitiallyIt makes the population smaller due to the loss of organisms. Less competition, more resources could increase the birth rates and eventually allow the population to have a growth rate increase.**7. How does the carrying capacity affect the reproductive**rates? If a population is below carrying capacity the reproductive rate will be high, if the population is at or above carrying capacity the reproductive rate will be low!**1. What things alter human population growth? Industry,**resources, space, technology. • 2. Is there a carrying capacity for the earth for the human population? Yes, • Explain we have limited amounts of space and resources so there is a limit to the number of humans the earth can support.

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