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  1. A Brief Review of Chapter 1 Which of the following theoretical approaches in psychology emphasized studying only observable behavior? • Psychoanalytic • Humanistic • Behaviorism • Structuralism

  2. A Brief Review of Chapter 1 Which of the following contemporary theoretical approaches in psychology is similar to functionalism? • Psychanalytic • Humanistic • Behaviorism • Cognitive

  3. A Brief Review of Chapter 1 A ________ psychologist would most likely study factors that influence persuasion. • Personality • Social • Physiological • Clinical

  4. A Brief Review of Chapter 1 You meet a psychologist who tells you that she works for IBM and helps them develop employee training and retention programs. What type of psychologist is she? • Social • Counseling • Experimental • Industrial-Organizational

  5. A Brief Review of Chapter 1 Contemporary psychologists would most likely agree with which of the following statements? • We cannot directly assess thinking and should only concentrate on studying observable behavior. • Heredity plays little to no role is influencing human behavior. • Culture is a major factor in shaping human behavior. • Laboratory research cannot reveal much about human behavior.

  6. PSYC 2201Research in PsychologyChapter 2 Outline for Weiten (2005) Bill Hill Kennesaw State University

  7. Does a basketball player have a better chance of making a shot after having just made his last 2 or 3 shots than he does after having just missed his last 2 or 3 shots? • Yes • No

  8. When shooting free throws, does a player have a better chance of making his second shot after making his first shot than after missing his first shot? • Yes • No

  9. Is it important to pass the ball to someone who has just made several (2, 3, or 4) shots in a row? • Yes • No

  10. Survey Data Found • Does a basketball player have a better chance of making a shot after having just made his last 2 or 3 shots than he does after having just missed his last 2 or 3 shots? Yes = 91% • When shooting free throws, does a player have a better chance of making his second shot after making his first shot than after missing his first shot? Yes = 68% • Is it important to pass the ball to someone who has just made several (2, 3, or 4) shots in a row? Yes = 84%

  11. Research Data Found The notion that “when you’re hot, you’re hot” is a myth. • Tversky & Gilovich (1989) analyzed the shooting records of pro basketball teams and found that players were equally likely to make a shot after a miss as after a basket. • They also verified this experimentally using varsity members of the Cornell team in a controlled shooting experiment.

  12. Research, is NOT • Personal opinion • Anecdotal evidence

  13. Goals of Scientific Approach • Measurement/Description (REMEMBER EMPIRICAL) • Understanding • Prediction • Application/Control

  14. Hypothesis Tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables.

  15. Variables • Measurable • May be conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors • Can be controlled by the researcher or observed in an research study

  16. Types of Variables • Participant/Subject • Representative Sample • Environment • Stimuli

  17. Theory Interrelated ideas or concepts that are used to explain a set of observations or research findings

  18. Steps in Scientific Research • Develop testable hypothesis • Select research method (which depends on the question asked) to design the research study • Collect data • Analyze data & draw conclusions • Share results

  19. Advantages of the Scientific Method • Precision (Operational Definitions) • Specificity/Clarity • Avoidance of error

  20. Research Methods “True” Experiment Manipulation of variables under controlled conditions with random assignment of participants and observation/measurement of behavior

  21. Research Methods Quasi-Experimental Research Manipulation of an IV and measurement of a DV but without random assignment of participants to IV conditions

  22. Research Methods Experiment • IV, Independent Variable(s) • DV, Dependent Variable(s) • UCV, Extraneous/Uncontrolled Variables • Irrelevant • Confounding • CV, Control Variables

  23. Research Methods Experiment • Experimental Group • Control Group

  24. Identify the Variables • A researcher is interested in evaluating 3 different treatments for curing phobias (unnatural fears of some object or situation). Participants receive one of 3 treatments for a period of 3 months. They are then tested for the intensity of their fear reaction to their particular phobic object or situation. The IV is: • The type of phobia they are suffering from • The type of treatment that they received • The intensity of the fear reaction after the treatment • The length of time the treatment was administered

  25. Identify the Variables • A scientist believes that eating large amounts of fiber will prevent cancer of the stomach. To prove this, she has a large sample of volunteers eat a large bowl of fiber cereal every morning for 3 years, while a second group eats no fiber for breakfast for 3 years. The control group is: • The volunteers that ate the fiber cereal • The volunteers that ate no fiber cereal • There is no control group in this experiment • The length of time the experiment was conducted (i.e., 3 years)

  26. Identify the Variables • A psychologist believes that he has developed a new teaching method that will produce greater learning. To prove this he selects 2 introductory psychology classes, one taught by Professor A and the other by Professor B. Professor A uses the new technique, while Professor B does not. The average test performance at the end of the semester is found to be greater for Professor A’s class. The UCV or Confounding variable: • The teaching technique • The subject matter of the course • The test performance • The professor who taught the course

  27. Research Methods Experimental Limitations • Artificiality • Cannot be used to research some questions • Inability to manipulate some variables • Experimenter Bias • Sampling Bias

  28. Research Methods Observational Research Watch and record defined behavior Types of Observational Research • Naturalistic • Controlled/Lab

  29. Research Methods Surveys/Questionnaires/Interviews Set of questions designed to gather information about individuals Survey Research Issues • Reliability & Validity • Social Desirability Bias

  30. Which Method to Use? • Jogging increases lung capacity. • Experiment • Survey • Naturalistic observation • Impossible to study scientifically

  31. Which Method to Use? • More men than women report fantasies of making large sums of money. • Experiment • Survey • Naturalistic observation • Impossible to study scientifically

  32. Which Method to Use? • Newborn infants have an innate conception of sin. • Experiment • Survey • Naturalistic observation • Impossible to study scientifically

  33. Which Method to Use? • Unmarried cab drivers talk more with their customers than do married cab drivers. • Experiment • Survey • Naturalistic observation • Impossible to study scientifically

  34. Research Methods Case Study Biographical study—either as it happens or through reconstruction

  35. Tierney (1987) reported survey results that showed that people who often ate Frosted Flakes as a child had half the cancer rate of those who never ate the cereal. Also, those who ate oatmeal as a child were 4 times more likely to develop cancer than those who did not eat oatmeal. Do these results provide evidence that oatmeal causes cancer and Frosted Flakes prevents cancer? • Yes • No

  36. Research Methods Correlational Research Attempt to establish whether 2 or more variables are related to each other • Positive correlation • Negative correlation

  37. Summarizing Your Results: Statistics • Descriptive Statistics • Measures of Central Tendency • Mean, Median, Mode • Measures of Variability • Inferential Statistics • Statistical Significance

  38. Avoiding Research Flaws • Importance of Replication • Sampling Bias • Placebo Effects • Problems with Self-Reports • Experimenter Bias

  39. Do you place your toilet paper so that it: • rolls over the spool • rolls under the spool

  40. Do you squeeze the toothpaste from the: • top • middle • bottom

  41. Do you eat corn on the cob: • in circles • side to side

  42. Do you eat Oreo cookies: • by twisting the halves apart • by smashing them up and adding them to another desert • whole

  43. Have you ever seen a ghost? • yes • no

  44. Do you skip ahead in a book to find out what will happen? • yes • no

  45. Have you ever flossed your teeth with a hair? • yes • no

  46. The Survey Results • 68% over the spool • 79% squeeze toothpaste from the top • 80% eat corn on the cob in circles • 50% eat Oreos whole, 18% twist apart, 15% smash them • 10% have seen a ghost • 27% skip ahead in a book • 7% have flossed with a hair

  47. Weiten’s Themes • Empirical Nature of Y • Subjectivity of Experience