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UNIT A: Biological Diversity

UNIT A: Biological Diversity

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UNIT A: Biological Diversity

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  1. UNIT A:Biological Diversity

  2. Preserving Biological Diversity:Y2Y: Yellowstone to Yukon • Y2Y is a joint Canadian and U.S. initiative designed to “combine science and stewardship to ensure that the wilderness, wildlife, native plants, and natural processes of the Yellowstone to Yukon wildlife corridor continue to function as an interconnected web of life”.

  3. This female Grey Wolf named “Pluie” inspired the Y2Y conservation initiative.

  4. Pluie was captured in Kananaskis Country and fitted with a radio collar in 1991. • She was tracked by satellite over 100 000 Km2 of protected area in Alberta, B.C. and Montana. • Her journey drew attention to the importance of the Rocky Mountains as a vital wildlife corridor.

  5. Pluie’s Territory Pluie’s travels proved that large carnivores still roam the mountain ecosystems.  To support these animals, we need effective conservation that can preserve and restore an intact landscape and manage threats such as roads, railways, development, and habitat loss.

  6. Challenges • Y2Y is also a major wildlife corridor for bears and mountain caribou as well as many species of both migrant and resident birds. There are thousands of roads dissecting the Yellowstone to Yukon region -- each one an obstacle for bears and other predators.  New measures like highway fencing and wildlife overpasses are attempts to mitigate the damage done by these roads and transportation corridors in the Y2Y. Yellowstone To Yukon Conservation Initiative Web Page

  7. Skill Practice Graph AssignmentAre Jasper’s Wolves in Danger?– page 6 – • Graphing • Exploring Wolf Population Trends • Note Toolbox 7 – pp 492 – 494 inclusive • Are Jasper’s Wolves In Danger ? • Using the guidelines provided in Toolbox 7 in your text,and those discussed in class, plot the data from the chart ( Page 6 – text ) onto a line or bar graph on the graph paper provided.

  8. Section 1.0 Biological Diversity is Reflected in the Variety of Life on Earth

  9. The world harbors an incredible diversity of life forms. • Most communities of life forms are characteristic to particular parts of earth. ( eg. tropical regions will have different life forms than polar regions )

  10. Traditionally, natural forces caused extinctions, but recently, they are increasingly being brought about by the influences of humans. • As a result, the variety of genetic material on our planet is decreasing.

  11. Section 1.1 – Examining Diversity

  12. Before we begin, What is Biology anyways? • BIO LOGY life or living things the study of

  13. BIODIVERSITY is the variety of species and ecosystems on Earth.

  14. Ecosystems – where living ( biotic ) organisms interact with non-living ( abiotic ) components in a common environment. • Ecosystems the world over show tremendous diversity. • Compare / Contrast the pictures of the two ecosystems at the bottom of page 9 – text.

  15. Check out the six natural regions that represent the general ecological units in the Province of Alberta: 1. Canadian Shield 2. Boreal Forest 3. Foothills 4. Rocky Mountains 5. Parkland 6. Grassland • Each of these has its own plants, animals, landscapes and weather patterns – and a multitude of unique ecosystems.

  16. Boreal Forest • generally a northern forest, characterized by evergreen conifers and long winters

  17. Canadian Shield

  18. Rocky Mountains

  19. Foot Hills • geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a mountain range.

  20. Grasslands near Cypress Hills • Large areas of land that are flat, grow different kinds of grasses and other plants and get less than 100 cm of precipitation each year. They also do not have many trees. Some grasslands are called Prairies.

  21. Parkland • Transitional Biome between Boreal Forest and Grassland

  22. Adaptations - Features that increase an organism’s chances of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment

  23. Species – A group of organisms that have the same structures and can reproduce. • members must have the ability to interbreed and produce viable offspring. • Some organisms within a species may look quite different due to: • age (puppies Vs dogs) • life cycle stage (caterpillar Vs butterfly, or tadpole Vs frog) • gender (bull Vs cow)

  24. Populations – Groups of an individual species which frequent a common, specific area, and share the same food, habitat and types of mating partners. Zebras Spit Too

  25. Community – many populations of different species that live together in the same area. Essentially the entire biotic component of an ecosystem • Carrying Capacity (K) - each community has a certain carrying capacity for organisms….. • Ecosystem – refers to both the biotic and abiotic components and their interactions within a given area. • Remember: • Biotic: living • Abiotic: non-living

  26. Diversity Within Species • There are subtle variations between individuals of any population. • This is called genetic diversity. • Each variation is a result of a variation within the genetic material of the organisms cells. • Some genetic variations are visible while others are not. • Ex. Blood type, bill shape, wing span, fur colour

  27. A Female Kermode bear and her cubs. All three of these bears are American Black Bears. The one in the middle shows a recessive pigment variation that accounts for her light fur colour. This specific genetic variation is found only in central coast of British Columbia. She is not an albino or a polar bear. The other two bears are her cubs.

  28. Species Distribution • Species are distributed unevenly throughout the world. • The greatest diversity of species is found in tropical regions close to the equator. • As you move away from the equator species diversity decreases greatly. • Why do you think that is?

  29. Conditions for life ALL LIVING THINGS: - are made of cells - need energy to live - grow and develop -reproduce - have adaptations that suit them to their environment

  30. Classifying Biological Diversity • Carolus Linnaeus developed “binomial nomenclature” which is a “two name” system for naming plants and animals. • All plants and animals are named using GENUS THEN SPECIES NAMES • Genus is capitalized, species is not and both are italicized or underlined Scientistous renoundous

  31. Organisms are grouped according to the physical structure of the species. • Closely related species might have the same Genus name ( eg, Cats - Felis ), but will have different Species names ( domesticus, tigris, leo ). Felis domesticus Felis tigris Felis leo

  32. Latin is the vernacular of Science • WHY?? Because Latin is a “dead language” it is no longer evolving and no country uses it as their language.

  33. The 5 Kingdom System • Many scientists classify all living things into 5 kingdoms: • Animalia (Animals) • Plantae (Plants) • Fungi (Yeasts, moulds, and mushrooms) • Protista (Mostly single celled organisms) • Monera (Bacteria) Video Clip

  34. The five kingdoms are further divided as follows:

  35. Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species See page 13

  36. Remember it this Way! • Kings • Play • Chess • On • Fine • Green • Silk See page 13

  37. Pop Quiz !(don’t worry it’s not for marks) • What are the five kingdoms of living things? • What are the 7 main categories used to classify living things?

  38. Pop Quiz !(don’t worry it’s not for marks) • What are the five kingdoms of living things? Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Monera 2. What are the 7 main categories used to classify living things? Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  39. Classification of Humans

  40. Classification of Humans • K – Animalia

  41. Classification of Humans • K – Animalia • P – Chordata (we have a spinal chord)

  42. Classification of Humans • K – Animalia • P – Chordata • C – Mammalia